Accelerator Physics Section 1

Section is involved in physics design of circular accelerators such as booster synchrotron, Indus-1 & Indus-2 and beam transfer lines connecting various accelerators namely TL-1, TL-2 & TL-3. It provide beam dynamics support towards the improvement and upgradation of the accelerator facility. Also participates in round the clock operation, where main objective is to provide the photon beam to the beam line users from all corners of India for carrying out scientific research using Synchrotron Radiation (SR) in various domain.

Group Activities
Publications
Group Members

Design, commissioning and operation of Indus-1 and Indus-2

Two SR sources namely Indus-1 (450 MeV electron storage ring) and Indus-2 (2.5 GeV electron storage ring) are housed in RRCAT. A beam dynamics based lattice design of these SR sources along with their common injector namely booster synchrotron was evolved. The design study of the lattice is being carried out using various computational code named as MAD, ORBIT, AT and RACETRACK. Apart from the lattice design, study of beam injection, extraction and study of different beam instabilities are also been carried out. These studies are made using the centralized scientific computing servers (BETA, CHI, DELTA, and AMOGH) and scientific computing clusters (KSHITIJ) at RRCAT. These simulations helps in finalizing the design and tolerances of various component of the accelerator. These radiation sources have been commissioned successfully and being operated near to the design beam parameter. Both the sources Indus-1 & Indus-2 are now operational in round the clock mode since Feb 2010. Most of the members of our section had undergone the rigorous training and qualification tests for the operation of these sources and contributing as beam physicists for reliable and smooth operation. Indus-2 is successfully operated with a beam current of ~200 mA at 2.5 GeV as shown in figure below

Operation of Indus-2 at 200 mA @ 2.5 GeV
Operation of Indus-2 at 200 mA @ 2.5 GeV

Design and commissioning of undulators in Indus-2

Specification of two planer undulators U1& U2 and one helical undulator U3 were evolved using beam dynamics simulation in Indus-2. With the designed specifications, these magnets are installed and commissioned. All three undulators have been successfully operated with the beam in Indus-2. Their effects on electron beam are measured and found to be in good agreement with the model predictions. Both the planer undulators U1 & U2 are operated with stored beam current of 150 mA and Apple-II undulator (U3) was operated with 100 mA at 2.5 GeV.

High current operation in Indus-2

Synchrotron Radiation flux from a synchrotron radiation source increases at higher beam current, however increasing stored beam current poses challenges due to beam instabilities and heat load on the components. Indus-2 operates in ramp mode, i.e. the injection energy of electron beam (550 MeV) is lower than the final energy (2.5 GeV) in user mode. Therefore, high current operation includes a proper optics and instability control over the energy ramp also. Proper tuning of the different quadrupole magnets, i.e. keeping the betatron tunes away from dangerous resonances, mitigating higher order mode problems to suppress the instabilities by optimized settings of RF cavities temperature and bunch by bunch feedback system in the entire ramping made it possible to increase the beam current to 200 mA at 2.5 GeV, in-spite of varying over voltage factor during energy ramping. Routinely, Indus-2 is now operating at higher beam current for users.

Closed orbit correction

In real operation of any circular accelerator, there are magnet-to-magnet field errors, stability errors of power supplies driving the magnets, misalignment of the magnetic elements etc. These errors distorts the ideal path known as closed orbit distortion (COD). The COD degrades performance of the storage ring in terms of poor beam injection, reduced beam lifetime and most importantly, improper photon beam delivery to the users. Therefore, it is necessary to correct the COD all over the ring. For the measurement of COD, there 56-beam position monitors (BPMs) distributed all over the ring and for its correction, 48 horizontal and 40 vertical orbit corrector magnets are installed. It is a COD minimisation problem based on orbit response matrix (ORM) between changes in orbit at BPMs with known change in corrector current. The SVD of the model and measured ORM in both the planes is shown in figure-1. The RMS COD was reduced to 0.3 mm and 0.2 mm from 4.5 mm and 1.7 mm after integrating the BPM offsets determined by beam based alignment (BBA) technique and taking corrective action, which is shown in figure-2.

Figure -1: Comparison of singlura value decompostion of the measured and model ORM.
Figure -1: Comparison of singlura value decompostion of the measured and model ORM.
Figure-2:  Corrected horizontal and vertical COD before and after incorporating the BPM offsets
Figure-2:  Corrected horizontal and vertical COD before and after incorporating the BPM offsets
Figure-2: Corrected horizontal and vertical COD before and after incorporating the BPM offsets

Beam Based Alignment (BBA)

The main objective of this BBA is to pass the electron beam through centre of magnetic elements of the Indus-2 ring. For this, the offsets of all the 56 beam position monitors (BPM) distributed over the ring were determined using beam-based alignment (BBA) technique. The process of finding the offset was very cumbersome and hence made fully automated. One such offset measurement is shown in figure below. After the BBA measurement, the offsets were incorporated in BPM system for further COD correction. This exercise, resulted into reduction of COD of Indus-2 substantially in both the horizontal and vertical plane. With this correction, more aperture was available to the beam and that enhances beam lifetime in Indus-2 significantly.

Offset determination for the BPM in Indus-2 using beam based alignment (BBA)
Offset determination for the BPM in Indus-2 using beam based alignment (BBA)

Impact of undulator on Beam dynamics in Indus-2

The magnetic field of undulator introduces perturbations in the path of the circulating electron beam and hence affect the linear and nonlinear beam dynamics of the electron beam in a storage ring. Study of the perturbations is essential for two purposes: first, to avoid degradation in the performance of the storage ring and second, to avoid any variation in the synchrotron radiation photon beam characteristics, which are primarily defined by the electron beam parameters at the radiation source point. In this context, study of tune, beta, emittance, and energy spread variation was carried out. Measurement results of tune and beta variations are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. Emittance and energy spread variations are found to be very small. The impact of nonlinear perturbations are analysed with the help of Frequency Map Analysis (FMA), and is shown in figure-1. This reveals that the nonlinear perturbations induced by undulators fields are not affecting the performance of the storage ring. The measured orbit variation with different pole gaps of undulator is shown in figure-2. Also, the variation in betatron tune in operating the undulator is measured and shown in figure-3.

Figure-1. Frequency map analysis and dynamic aperture of Indus-2 ring before and after having undulators U1 and U2
Figure-1. Frequency map analysis and dynamic aperture of Indus-2 ring before and after having undulators U1 and U2
(a)

(b)

Figure-1. Frequency map analysis and dynamic aperture of Indus-2 ring before and after having undulators U1 and U2
Figure-1. Frequency map analysis and dynamic aperture of Indus-2 ring before and after having undulators U1 and U2
(c)

(d)

Figure-1. Frequency map analysis and dynamic aperture of Indus-2 ring before and after having undulators U1 and U2
Figure-1. Frequency map analysis and dynamic aperture of Indus-2 ring before and after having undulators U1 and U2
(e)

(f)

Figure-1. Frequency map analysis and dynamic aperture of Indus-2 ring before and after having undulators U1 and U2


Figure 2: Orbit variation with the pole gap of undulators U1 and U2
Figure 2: Orbit variation with the pole gap of undulators U1 and U2
Figure 2: Orbit variation with the pole gap of undulators U1 and U2
Figure 2: Orbit variation with the pole gap of undulators U1 and U2
Figure 2: Orbit variation with the pole gap of undulators U1 and U2


Figure 3: Vertical tune variation with the pole gap of undulators U1 and U2
Figure 3: Vertical tune variation with the pole gap of undulators U1 and U2
Figure 3: Vertical tune variation with the pole gap of undulators U1 and U2

Ion trapping investigation

In Indus-2, beam current saturation was observed when the stored beam current reached around 100 mA. After several experimentation and simulation, it was concluded the presence of ion trapping is the main cause behind it. To overcome the effect of ion trapping, simulation study was carried out and a suitable bunch filling scheme was evolved by which the disturbing effects caused by the ions were mitigated. The stability of ion species throughout the Indus-2 ring was estimated using various configuration of bunch train and the simulation result for the CO+ ion is shown in adjoining figure. This figure suggests that to mitigate the ion trapping problem, a bunch filling pattern consists of a long train of 150 consecutive bunches out of total 291 bunches is an optimized solution. With this optimal partial bunch filling pattern, higher beam current accumulation was achieved in Indus-2.

Percentage of region of ring circumference where the CO ions are trapped for various length of bunch train in the Indus-2
Percentage of region of ring circumference where the CO ions are trapped for various length of bunch train in the Indus-2

Low emittance optimization and operation of Indus-2

In order to enhance the spectral brightness of Indus-2, an extensive study has been carried out to reduce its transverse emittance. In low emittance mode, difficulties are faced during beam injection in Indus-2. For this, this storage ring was operated at a higher emittance and afterwards its emittance was reduced at 2.5 GeV by using an appropriate switch over procedure with the help of optimal tuning of quadrupole and sextupole magnet power supply currents in a synchronized manner. For switching over to the low emittance mode, strengths of quadrupole and sextupole magnets are adjusted as shown in the figure. After this optics optimization, final tuning of machine was carried out using various feedback mechanism such as transverse bunch by bunch feedback, orbit feedback and tune feedback. These processes reduces the horizontal emittance to ~45 nm-rad from ~135 nm-rad and vertical emittance to ~0.2 nm-rad from ~0.3 nm-rad. Lattice functions for the reduced emittance lattice is shown below. These values are confirmed by measuring the beam sizes on X-ray diagnostic beam-line. In this process, bunch length of electron beam as measured on visible diagnostic beam-line is also found to be reduced by ~40%. Indus-2 operation with reduced emittance will provide the enhanced spectral brightness of photon beam up to factor of ~4. It is also demonstrated that with this procedure, the horizontal emittance can be further reduced up-to 22 nm-rad.

Variation of strengths of quadrupole and sextupole magnets during switch over from nominal operating emittance to reduced emittance
Variation of horizontal and vertical measured beam sizes during switch over.
Variation of strengths of quadrupole and sextupole magnets during switch over from nominal operating emittance to reduced emittance
Variation of horizontal and vertical measured beam sizes during switch over.

Beam injection dynamics

In booster, Indus-1 and Indus-2, three, single and four injection kicker schemes are adopted respectively to carry out multi-turn beam injection. The performance of booster in terms of accelerated beam current is better in uncompensated bump injection scheme as compared to compensated bump injection scheme. Indus-2 was commissioned and operated with moderate optics to overcome several difficulties faced in the beam injection with a low beam emittance optics. These difficulties are mainly governed by the higher strength of chromaticity correcting sextupole magnets. In the low emittance optics, due to higher strength of chromaticity correcting sextupole magnets, dynamic aperture is smaller as well as during beam injection injected and stored beam oscillations are higher as compared to the moderate optics. Even for the moderate optics, the maximum amplitude of injected and stored beam oscillations are reaching near to the septum magnet, which is shown in adjoining figure. The amplitude of these oscillations are reduced with the help of off momentum beam injection.

Injected beam oscillation
Stored beam oscillation
A) Injected beam oscillation
B) Stored beam oscillation


Injected and stored beam oscillations in the presence of mismatch between injection kickers

Enhancement of Beam lifetime

The lifetime of the stored electron beam in a synchrotron radiation source is mainly dominated by beam-gas interactions (vacuum lifetime) and electron-electron interactions within a beam bunch (Touschek lifetime). It depends on the dynamic aperture available for on-momentum and off-momentum electrons for stable motion in storage ring. Horizontal and vertical aperture available for beam motion has been measured using horizontal and vertical scrapers installed in one of the long straight sections in Indus-2 stoarge ring. The vacuum pressure in the ring was not uniform and at ~100 mA stored current at 2.5 GeV was ~ 2×10-9 mbar at several places in the ring, but it was found quite high and it was ~1×10-8 mbar, at four injection kicker location. After the replacement of the cracked ceramic vacuum chamber of all four kicker magnets with new ones, the measured vacuum pressure everywhere in the ring was reduced to ~ 1 x 10-9 mbar at the stored beam current of 100mA. As a result this modifications, beam lifetime of more than 40 hours has been observed at 100 mA stored current at 2.5 GeV beam energy. Thereafter, in December 2018 shutdown, small and minor vacuum leak in segment 4 and 5 was detected. Corrective measures were taken promptly and vacuum pressure in the entire ring was further reduced to 2.5 x 10-10 mbar. After this, beam lifetime of more than 70 hours at 100 mA was achieved which shows a significant improvement. A comparison in beam current decay before and after shut down is shown in figure below. The beam lifetime also depends on the momentum acceptance of the ring. The simulated result of momentum acceptance of the ring at total RF voltage of 1825 kV is shown in adjacent figure, which shows sufficient momentum aperture is available to beam. With this machine condition, Touschek lifetime and vacuum lifetime was calculated using 6D particle tracking code ELAGENT and the total measured beam lifetime is seen to be concurrent with the theoretical estimated value.

Momentum acceptance in Indus-2
Beam current decay pattern before and  after shutdown
Momentum acceptance in Indus-2
Beam current decay pattern before and after shutdown

LOCO analysis

The estimation and correction of the beam optics errors in the operational storage ring is always vital to achieve the design performance. To achieve this task, a method based on linear optics from closed orbit (LOCO) is used in Indus-2 storage ring. In this technique, based on the response matrix fit, errors in the quadrupole strengths, BPM gains, orbit corrector calibration factors etc. are obtained. The methods based on Gauss-Newton and Levenberg Marquadt are used for fitting. For correction of the optics, suitable changes in the quadrupole strengths are applied through the changes in currents of the 26 quadrupole power supplies to achieve the desired optics. The beta function and betatron tunes before and after optics correction are shown in figure. Betabeat, which is the relative deviation of the beta function, has been reduced to better than 1% from uncorrected values of ~9% in horizontal and ~ 6% in vertical plane. After the optics correction, the performance of the storage ring is improved in terms of beam accumulation, reduced beam loss during energy ramping, and beam lifetime etc.

Betatron function in both horizontal and vertical planes before and after applying the LOCO correction.
Tune diagram up to the 5th order resonances. At 2.5 GeV, the theoretical betatron tune is shown by a plus symbol, the square and the diamond symbols show the measured betatron tunes before and after optics correction using 26 quadrupole power supplies. The corrected betatron tune matches very closely to the theoretical model value.
Betatron function in both horizontal and vertical planes before and after applying the LOCO correction.
Tune diagram up to the 5th order resonances. At 2.5 GeV, the theoretical betatron tune is shown by a plus symbol, the square and the diamond symbols show the measured betatron tunes before and after optics correction using 26 quadrupole power supplies. The corrected betatron tune matches very closely to the theoretical model value.

Betatron coupling

The achievement of bright beam with a better lifetime are one of the challenges in designing synchrotron radiation sources. In a real machine, there may exist rotation error about the longitudinal axis in normal quadrupoles and because of that the electron displaced in horizontal plane experience an extra force in vertical plane and vice-versa. Due to this coupling phenomena between horizontal and vertical motion of electrons, it give rise to vertical emittance in storage ring. The rotated quadrupole in dispersive region will give rise to vertical dispersion and due to this, there is also an increase in vertical beam emittance. For getting bright beam, vertical emittance should be minimum. Betatron coupling and residual vertical dispersion has been measured in Indus-2 storage ring. The measurements of betatron coupling was carried out using tune split method and using Cross Talk Closed Orbit (CTCO) method. The results are shown in figure. The measured betatron coupling was found to be less than 1%.

Betatron coupling measurement using tune split method
Measured vertical dispersion at all BPM locations in Indus-2
Betatron coupling measurement using tune split method
Measured vertical dispersion at all BPM locations in Indus-2

Tune feedback

Betatron tune is a key beam parameter, and a fixed desired tune is essential in a synchrotron radiation facility. In Indus-2, difficulty was faced in smooth accumulation of beam current and it was observed, shifting of betatron tune in a random manner is the main cause behind it. Thus, to control the shift in tune, a betatron tune feedback system was implemented for which, two appropriate quadrupoles families were identified by analyzing machine response matrix. Tune feedback system is able to control the betatron tune in both the transverse plane within the range of 0.001. This helps in smooth accumulation of beam current in Indus-2 as shown in figure.

a)	Tune feedback OFF
b)	Tune feedback ON
a) Tune feedback OFF
b) Tune feedback ON
Beam current accumulation with tune feedback ON and OFF

Beam instability

For a well-designed electron storage ring, there are two main causes for electron losses; first is due to scattering of particles in the beam with the residual gas molecules and second is due to beam instabilities. While the electron losses due to scattering is a single-particle phenomena leading to a gradual loss of electrons whereas electron losses due to beam instabilities is a multi-particle effect and it can lead to a partial or complete loss of the electron beam. The multi-particle effect arises due to electromagnetic interaction of the high intensity electron beam with its wake fields which are induced due to resistive wall of vacuum chamber, broad band impedance and narrow band impedance of the various storage ring components. The broad band impedance of the ring arises due to non-uniform cross section of the components in the ring like bellows, kickers and beam position indicators whereas narrow band impedance of the ring arises mainly due to RF cavities. The wake fields due to broad band impedance are short range and it causes single bunch instability whereas the wake fields due to narrow band impedance are long ranges and it causes coupled multi-bunch beam instability. In Indus-2 transverse multi-bunch feedback has been installed and is operational whereas longitudinal multi-bunch feedback is to be installed. The longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities arises due to RF cavities higher order modes are suppressed by optimizing the water temperature in the individual RF cavities. With these conditions a beam current ~200 mA at beam energy 2.5 GeV has been stored in Indus-2 storage ring.

Fast ion Instability

Recently, the beam emittance of Indus-2 was reduced to one third of the nominal optics and at this low emittance optics, likelihood of fast beam ion instability (FBII) is being explored using simulation study. FBII is generated due to the cascading interaction of electron beam and ions comes across in the path of the beam. This interaction induces centre of mass oscillation in bunches of electron beam and thus increases its transverse beam size, which spoils the effort made for achieving the low emittance beams. One effective way to suppress this instability is the operation of storage ring with optimized multi-bunch train filling pattern. The study of this phenomenon is being carried out via numerical analysis and particle tracking.

Pinger Magnet

Pinger magnet in a storage ring facilitates the understanding of beam dynamics. It is a pulsed dipole magnet which deflects the bunch train in transverse direction with the pulse width comparable to one revolution time period of the beam circulation in the storage ring. The beam will be kicked transversally by means of Pinger magnet up to the aperture limit where the magnetic fields of the optics exhibits strong nonlinearities. The excited betatron oscillations around the reference orbit will then be sampled, turn after turn, by beam position monitors (BPM). From the analysis of turn-by-turn data, the nonlinear beam dynamical parameters of Indus-2 storage ring such as dynamic aperture, frequency map analysis (FMA) and resonance driving terms (RDT) will be extracted and will be further optimised. Recently, vertical Pinger magnet has been installed in one of the short straight section of Indus-2 lattice for these studies. The installed Pinger magnet has following specification.

Peak magnetic field: 650 G
Deflection angle: 2.0 mrad
Effective magnetic length: 250 mm
Magnetic field uniformity (Delta B/B): ± 2 × 10-3 (within ± 7 mm in mid plane)
Magnetic field pulse width: 958 ns
Delay in peak magnetic field: 20 ns (w.r.t current peak)
Pulse shape: Half sine
Average Ti coating thickness: 690 nm (inside ceramic chamber)

Harmonic Sextupole

Two families of harmonic sextupole will be accommodated in the dispersion free straight section of Indus-2 lattice in order to enhance the dynamic aperture. A large negative chromaticity is anticipated during the low emittance operation of Indus-2 storage ring due to tight focussing. To avoid single bunch head tail beam instability, the chromaticity needs to be slightly positive leading to high magnetic strength of chromaticity correcting sextupoles. Due to its nonlinear nature the sextupole magnets imposes a limitation on the dynamic aperture which has to be sufficient in order to have good injection efficiency and better beam lifetime.

Operation of Indus-2 with low momentum compaction optics

low momentum compaction optics. The short electron bunch provide two additional tools for synchrotron radiation beamline scientists. First is the incoherent short synchrotron radiation pulses up to the X-ray regime to perform the time resolved experiments and second is the coherent synchrotron radiation in THz regime. Trial operation of Indus-2 is performed to achieve the short electron bunches in the storage ring. For this, a modified beam optics is applied in Indus-2 storage ring by reversing the polarities of two quadrupole magnet families and two sextupoles magnet families. Beam accumulation is carried out at injection energy (550 MeV) using the four kicker magnets, installed in long straight section of the ring. For increasing the beam energy, Indus-2 magnet power supplies current are increased synchronously. Initially, there was heavy beam loss in starting of the energy ramping. After 2-3 iterations of tune corrections, beam loss was minimized. At final beam energy (2.5 GeV), transition to low momentum compaction optics has been performed by changing the strength of Q5D family quadrupoles. During the transition, betatron tunes are kept constant using the quadrupoles of Q2F and Q3D families. The measurement of synchrotron frequency during the operation confirms that the momentum compaction factor is reduced by a factor of 25. As a result, the natural bunch length of the electron beam is expected to be reduced by a factor of 4.8 (from 50ps to ~10.4ps). The measured synchrotron frequency and the estimated momentum compaction factor is shown in figure adjacent to it.


Measured synchrotron frequency vs Q5D current during the transition to low momentum compaction optics
Momentum compaction factor (derived from synchrotron freq.) vs Q5D strength during transition to low momentum compaction optic
Measured synchrotron frequency vs Q5D current during the transition to low momentum compaction optics
Momentum compaction factor (derived from synchrotron freq.) vs Q5D strength during transition to low momentum compaction optics


Microtron beam emittance measurement

In a charged particle accelerator, beam, emittance is a very important parameter. Phase space area occupied by the beam is called beam emittance. There are different methods of beam emittance measurement like pepper pot, single slit method, quadrupole scan method etc. Quadrupole scan method is one of the most commonly used methods for beam emittance measurement for lepton injector systems at medium beam energy range in which the beam is not primarily space-charge dominated. In the quadrupole scan method, the rms beam size is measured as a function of the strength of one or more quadrupoles situated upstream to a beam profile monitor (BPM) in a beam transfer line. This method was used to measure the beam emittance of the 20 MeV Microtron in Indus accelerator complex. The measured emittance in horizontal and vertical plane is 1.21mm mrad and 4.16 mm mrad respectively.

Beam optimization with new microtron

First the beam which is coming out from the new microtron was centred in horizontal as well as in the vertical plane using microtron external channel, VSC, HSC and combined function steering magnet located in the beam transport line-1. Beam emittance and Twiss parameters measurement was carried out of this new microtron using quadrupole scan method. Based on the measured values, new beam optics for TL1 was calculated and applied. With this new optics of TL1, a maximum of 6.5 mA accelerated booster current was achieved.

Baseline lattice design for storage ring of HBSRS

To achieve synchrotron radiation brightness more than 1022 [ph/sec.mm2. mrad2. (0.1%BW)], in the photon energy range 10-200 keV from insertion devices, a high brightness synchrotron radiation source (HBSRS) is being studied. A new 6 GeV electron storage ring is capable to provide the required ultra-low beam emittance in pm rad range. To achieve such a low emittance, lattice design studies are performed using advanced concept of hybrid multi-bend achromat and utilising the multi-objective optimization techniques. Based on these studies, a compact baseline lattice is proposed which provides beams with emittance of 150 pm rad in a storage ring circumference of ~ 910 m with following features and constraints:

Magnets: Strength of the dipole up to 0.75 T and quadrupole magnet gradient up to 80 T/m.
Number of available long straight sections are 32
Length of each long straight section is 6 m
Lattice design objective is minimizing Synchrotron Radiation (SR) loss and maximizing Dynamic Aperture for on and off momentum particles

Such a low emittance storage rings results in large negative chromaticities, and for their correction, strong sextupole magnets are used. These makes the beam dynamics nonlinear and ultimately reduces the available aperture, called dynamic aperture available for the stable movement to the beam. Optimization of dynamic aperture is a challenging task, and in this studies a class of multi-objective and multivariable optimisation techniques are used. In order to achieve efficient chromaticity correction, a dispersive bump is generated at the locations of sextupole magnets. The lattice functions for an optimized baseline lattice and tune diagram showing designed betatron tune are shown in the following figure.

Baseline lattice design for storage ring of HBSRS

Tentative hybrid seven bend achromat lattice of HBSRS producing 150 pm.rad beam emittance. Yellow rectangles show dipole magnets, red & blue- quadrupole magnets and green & magenta- sextupole magnets.

Tune diagram up to fourth order showing designed betatron tune (star mark)
Tune diagram up to fourth order showing designed betatron tune (star mark)

Booster Design for HBSRS

A 6 GeV booster along-with a 200 MeV pre-injector Linac will serve as a top-up injector system for the storage ring of High Brilliance Synchrotron Radiation Source (HBSRS). For booster, a modified FODO lattice with 86 unit cells has been proposed. This will generate electron beam with the low emittance of ~5.0 nm-rad at 6 GeV. Its unit cell contains a bending magnet with defocusing gradient, a focusing quadrupole, a pair of focusing and defocusing chromaticity correcting sextupoles. In alternate cell, an additional defocusing quadrupole will be used for optics optimization. The lattice functions for 2 unit cells are shown in the figure. In booster, on axis beam injection will be carried out with the help of injection kicker and injection septum magnets, afterwards its energy will be increased by using sinusoidal magnet driving current ramp profile. At final energy, beam will be extracted from it with the help of fast extraction kicker and extraction septum magnets.

Lattice function of booster for 2 unit cells. QF: Focusing quadrupole, BM+QD: Bending magnet with defocusing gradient, QD1: Defocusing quadrupole, SF & SD: Focusing & defocusing chromaticity correcting sextupoles
Lattice function of booster for 2 unit cells. QF: Focusing quadrupole, BM+QD: Bending magnet with defocusing gradient, QD1: Defocusing quadrupole, SF & SD: Focusing & defocusing chromaticity correcting sextupoles

Transport line design from booster to storage ring (BTR) for HBSRS

A preliminary studies of beam transport line from booster synchrotron to the storage ring (BTR) has been carried out using computer code TRANSPORT. In the proposed layout, the booster ring is inside the storage ring and has a clear radial distance of 7.0 m relative to the storage ring. The transfer line from booster extraction point to the injection point of the storage ring has length ~ 34 m with effective bending angle of 16.50. Schematic diagram of the layout of various magnetic elements of BTR transfer line are shown in figure. It includes one 60 extraction septum magnet, three bending magnets (BM1, BM2 and BM3), 12 quadrupoles (6 focussing and 6 defocussing) and injection septum magnet (thick and thin).

Layout of booster to storage ring transfer line
Layout of booster to storage ring transfer line
The quadrupoles are used to match the lattice twiss parameters in both the transverse planes and makes the dispersion function and its derivative zero as required at the injection point of the storage ring. The matched lattice twiss parameters along the line are shown in figure. The horizontal dispersion function is below 0.45 m throughout the transfer line. Adequate space has been left for installation of various diagnostic elements and steering magnets in the line.

Lattice parameters in the transport line
Lattice parameters in the transport line

CTF-3 design at CERN

CLIC Test Facility-3 (CTF3) is a project of CERN to demonstrate the proof of principle of two beam acceleration scheme, which will be used in future electron positron collider, CLIC. Under DAE-CERN collaboration, optics design of a bunch compressor cum transfer line, namely TL-2 is carried out for CTF3 and the line is shown in figure. This line is able to tune R56 in a very wide range (from -0.25 m to +0.25 m) with suppression of second order aberration T566 in the entire range. Such wide range of tuning and optimization of sextupole scheme to make T566 nearly zero, are some of the important and unique features of this line. On the basis of the optics design, the transport line TL-2 has been installed and commissioned successfully at CERN.

Optics design of TL-2 for CTF-3
Optics design of TL-2 for CTF-3


Publications

A. Journal Article

  1. Jena S.K., Fakhri A. A., Ghodke A. D., Senecha V.K.,  
    Investigation of fast beam-ion instability (FBII) in wake function formalism for the Indus-2 storage ring. Nuclear Inst. and Methods, 
    in Physics Research A, Vol. 919, p. 113-118, Mar. 2019

  2. Husain R., Ghodke A.D. 
    Constrained multi-objective optimization of storage ring lattices, 
    Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research A, Vol. 883, p. 151-158, Mar. 2018

  3. Husain R., Ghodke A.D. 
    Analysis and correction of the linear optics errors, and operational improvements in the Indus-2 storage ring, 
    Chinese Phys. C, Vol. 41, no. 8, Aug. 2017

  4. Jena S.K. ,Ghodke A.D., Senecha V.K. 
    Simulation of fast beam ion instability (FBII) in Indus-2 and its experimental observation, 
    Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 12, Nov. 2017

  5. Sinhamahapatra D., Haridas G., Kumar P., Ghodke A.D., Tiwari M.K., Hannurkar P.R.
    Synchrotron radiation absorbed dose rate measurement at BL-16 beamline of Indus-2 
    Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, Vol. 54, p. 259-262, Apr. 2016

  6. Kumar Pradeep, Singh G., Ghodke A. D. , Vaishnav H., Singh P.,
    Dependence of loss rate of electron due to elastic gas scattering on the shape of vacuum chamber ,
    VACUUM 120, 67 (2015)

  7. Sharma Amalendu, Tyagi Deepak Kumar and Ghodke A. D.,
    Optimization of harmonic sextupoles in Indus-2 electron storage ring,
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 782 (2015)

  8. Fakhri Ali Akbar , Kant Pradeep, Singh Gurnam and Ghodke A. D.,
    An analysis of double bend achromat lattice,
    Review of Scientific Instruments, 86, 0333304 (2015)

  9. Fakhri Ali Akbar , Kant Pradeep, Singh Gurnam and Ghodke A. D.,
    Beam emittance reduction during operation of Indus-2,
    Review of Scientific Instruments, 86, 0333304 (2015)

  10. Jena S. K., Husain Riyasat, Gandhi M. L.,  Agrawal R. K., Yadav S.,  Ghodke  A. D.,
    Beam based alignment and its relevance in Indus-2,
    Review of Scientific Instruments. 86, 093303 (2015)

  11. Jena S. K., Ghodke A. D.,
    Observation and mitigation of ion trapping in Indus-2,
    PRAMANA-  Journal of physics Vol. 85, No. 6 (2015)

  12. Husain, Riyasat, Ghodke A. D., Singh G.,
    Optimal placement of the magnets in Indus-2 storage ring,
    Chinese Phys. C, Vol. 39(3) (2015).

  13. Abdurrahim & Ghodke A. D.,
    Effect of undulators on the stored electron beam of Indus-2,
    Chinese Physics C Vol. 39 (7) (2015)

  14. Saini R.S., Tyagi Y., and Puntambekar T. A.,
    Enhancing the Accelerated Beam Current in the Booster Synchrotron by Optimizing the Transport line Beam Propagation.
    PRAMANA- Journal of physics, 2015

  15. Jena S. K., Yadav S., Agrawal R. K., Ghodke A. D., Fatnani P. & Puntambekar T. A.,
    Stabilization of betatron tune in Indus-2 storage ring,
    Chinese Physics C Vol. 38(6) (2014)

  16. Fakhri Ali Akbar, Prajapati S. K., Ghodke A. D. and Singh Gurnam,
    Studies of beam injection with a compensated bump and uncompensated bump in a synchrotron,
    Review of Scientific Instruments, 84, 083303 (2013)

  17.  Sharma Amalendu, Singh P., Abdurrahim, Ghodke A. D. and Singh Gurnam,
    Analytical expressions of transfer functions for a hard edge dipole magnet using a basic geometrical approach ,
    Physical Review Special Topics- Accelerators and Beams, 16, 014001 (2013)

  18. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.,
    Beam lifetime measurement and analysis in Indus-2 electron storage ring,
    PRAMANA-  Journal of physics., 80(5), 855 (2013)

  19. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D., Karnewar A.K., Holikatti A. C., Yadav S., Puntambekar T.A., Singh G. & Singh P.,
    Measurements of aperture and beam lifetime using movable beam scrapers in Indus-2 electron storage ring,
    Review of Scientific Instruments. 84, 123301 (2013)

  20. Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D., Yadav S., Holikatti A. C., Yadav R. P., Fatnani P., Puntambekar T. A. & Hannurkar P. R.,
    Measurement, analysis and correction of the closed orbit distortion in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source,
    PRAMANA-  Journal of physics., 80, 2 (2013)

  21. Fakhri Ali Akbar , Ghodke A. D. and Singh Gurnam,
    Effect of Wavelength Shifter in Indus-1,
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 613 (2010)

  22. Ghodke A. D., Husain Riyasat, Kumar P., Yadav S. & Puntambekar T. A.,
    Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source,
    Review of Scientific Instruments. 83, 103303 (2012)

  23. Jain V.K., Bhandarkar U.V., Yadav S., Joshi S. C., Ghodke A. D., Lad M., Hannurkar P. R.,
    Estimation of higher order modes of Indus-2 RF cavity using combined electromagnetic-thermal-structural simulations,
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A,  612, (2010).

  24. Sharma Amalendu, Abdurrahim, Ghodke A. D. and Singh Gurnam,
    Optics design and second order longitudinal dispersion minimization in a bunch compressor transfer line for CTF3,
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 602, Issue 2, (342-351), (2009)

  25. Ghodke A. D., Husain Riyasat, Singh G.,
    Indus-2 commissioning team, Progress in Commissioning of Indus-2,
    ICFA, Beam Dynamics Newsletter No.-41, Dec. (2006)

  26. Singh G.,
    et.al,  Commissioning status of Indus-1 SR facility,
    Indian Journal of Pure &  Applied Physics, 39, (2001)

  27. Angal-Kalinin D., Singh G.,
    Emittance measurements of microtron beam,
    Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, 38 (2000)

  28. Sahoo G. K. and  Singh G. ,
    Design studies of Indus-2 storage ring lattice using the code ESRO,
    Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, 37 (1999)

  29. Bhawalkar D.D., Singh G. & Nandedkar R. V.,
    Synchrotron Radiation Source INDUS-1  and INDUS-2, ,
    Pramana 50 (1998)

  30. Singh G., Angal D., Singh B. and Kant P.,
    Synchrotron Radiation Source Indus-2,
    Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, 35 (1997)

  31. Ramamurthi S. S. & Singh G. ,
    Status of Indus-1 SR source,
    Nuclear Instrumentation Methods A 359  (1992)

  32. Angal D., Singh G. and Ramamurthi S. S.,
    Design of transfer lines for Indus-1,
    Indian Journal of Physics 65 A (6), (1991)

  33. Singh B., Singh G. and Ramamurthi S. S.,
    Injection into the synchrotron for Indus-1 and Indus-2,
    Indian Journal  of Physics 65 A (6), (1991)

  34. Sahoo G.K., Singh G. and Ramamurthi S. S.,
    Variation of beam emittance during acceleration cycle of the synchrotron for Indus-1 and Indus-2,
    Indian J  Physics 65 A (5), (1991)

  35. Singh G., Sahoo G.K. and Ramamurthi S. S.,
    Spectral brilliance of a weak focusing electron storage ring for synchrotron radiation,
    Indian Journal of Physics 62A (1988)

  36. Sahoo G.K., Singh G. and Ramamurthi S. S.,
    Beam lifetime calculations for an electron storage ring for synchrotron radiation,
    Indian journal of physics, 62A (1988)

B. Conference papers

  1. Ghodke A.D. Operational status of Indus accelerator facilities at RRCAT and planning of new high brightness light source in India,
    National Symposium on Radiation Physics (NSRP-22) , New Delhi, Nov., 8-10, 2019

  2. Ghodke A.D., Radheshyam P., Fakhri A.A., Kumar P., Husain R., Abdurrahim, Jena S.K., Kant P., Meena V.K., Tyagi D.K.
    Physics design study for proposed high brightness synchrotron radiation source (HBSRS) in India,
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , New Delhi, Nov., 18-21, 2019

  3. Fakhri A.A., Kant P., Ghodke A.D.,
    Beam emittance reduction in Indus-2 and lattice upgrade studies,
    Asian Forum for Accelerators and Detectors , New Delhi, Feb., 14-16, 2019

  4. Husain R., Ghodke A.D.,
    Betatron coupling measurement and its correction in Indus-2 storage ring ,
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , New Delhi, Nov., 18-21, 2019

  5. Kumar P., Tyagi D.K., Ghodke A.D.,
    Coupled bunch beam instability due to Resistive wall of vacuum chamber and its cure in High Brilliance Synchrotron Radiation Source.,
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , New Delhi, Nov., 18-21, 2019

  6. Kant P., Fakhri A.A., Ghodke A.D.,
    Effect of eddy current induced sextupole during ramping in booster synchrotron of HBSRS,
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , New Delhi, Nov., 18-21, 2019

  7. Kant P., Fakhri A.A., Ghodke A.D.,
    FODO lattice for booster of High Brilliance Synchrotron Radiation Source,
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , New Delhi, Nov., 18-21, 2019

  8. Jena S.K., Fakhri A.A., Ghodke A.D., Senecha V.K.,
    Ion-beam interaction in electron storage ring of HBSRS,
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , New Delhi, Nov., 18-21, 2019

  9. Husain R., Ghodke A.D.,
    Linear lattice design studies of high brightness synchrotron radiation source (HBSRS),
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , New Delhi, Nov., 18-21, 2019

  10. Fakhri A.A., Kant P., Yadav S., Deep A., Rana R., Kumar K.V., Husain R., Prajapati S.K.
    Low emittance optics optimization during operation of Indus-2,
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , New Delhi, Nov., 18-21, 2019

  11. Tyagi D.K., Kumar P., Ghodke A.D.
    Optimization of higher harmonic RF cavity parameters for enhancing the Touscheck beam lifetime in the storage ring of HBSRS,
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , New Delhi, Nov., 18-21, 2019

  12. Kumar P., Ghodke A.D., Yadav S., Arora R.K., Deep A., Lad M., Puntambekar T.A.
    Simulation study and measurement of longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities and its cure using longitudinal bunch by bunch feedback system in Indus-2,
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , New Delhi, Nov., 18-21, 2019

  13. Jena S.K., Sahu T.K., Nayak M.K., Haridas G., Fakhri A.A., Ghodke A.D., Senecha V.K.
    Detection of trapped ions by measuring bremsstrahlung photons in Indus-2,
    National Symposium on Radiation Physics (NSRP-22) , New Delhi, Nov., 8-10, 2019
  14. Ghodke A.D., Fakhri A.A., Kumar P., Husain R., Abdurrahim, Jena S.K.,  Kant P., Tyagi D.K., Meena V.K. 
    Beam dynamical considerations for high brilliance synchrotron radiation source (HBSRS), 
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  15. Meena V.K.,  Husain R.,  Fakhri A.A.,  Ghodke A.D. 
    Alignment tolerances of the quadrupole magnets and closed orbit correction scheme in low emittance storage ring , 
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  16. Merh B.N., Kutubuddin S., Chauhan A., Jena S.K., Agrawal R.K., Fatnani P. 
    Automation of beam based alignment for Indus-2, 
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  17. Jena S.K.,  Meena V.K.,  Fakhri A.A., Ghodke A.D. 
    Beam injection with a pulsed sextupole kicker for low emittance electron storage ring, 
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  18. Fakhri A.A.,  Kant P.,  Ghodke A.D. 
    Modification of Indus-2 achromat, for installation of insertion devices, 
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  19. Prajapati S.K., Fakhri A.A., Ghodke A.D. 
    Modified scheme of beam energy ramping for booster, 
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  20. Sheth S.S., Sheth Y.M., Fakhri A.A., Prajapati S.K., Baxy D. 
    Nonlinear Reference Profile Generator for Quadrupole Supplies of Booster Synchrotron, 
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  21. Kant P.,  Fakhri A.A., Ghodke A.D. 
    Studies of beam emittance variation during ramping in booster of low emittance electron storage ring, 
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC) , Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  22. Kumar P., Sinhamahapatra D., Ghodke A.D.
    Effect of intra-beam coulomb scattering on beam parameters in ultra-low emittance electron storage ring 
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC)  , Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  23. Husain R., Ghodke A. D.
    Calibration and restoration of low emittance beam optics in Indus-2 storage ring
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (In PAC), Indore, Jan. 9-12, 2018

  24. Kumar P., Ghodke A.D.
    Vertical beam size correction strategy during row phase change of APPLE-II undulator in Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  25. Abdurrahim, Kumar P., Ghodke A.D.
    Beam dynamics effect of APPLE-II undulator on Indus-2 beam
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  26. Tyagi D. K., Ghodke A. D.
    Beam dynamics with pinger magnet in Indus-2 electron storage ring
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Indore, Jan., 9-12, 2018

  27. Husain Riyasat, & Ghodke A. D.,
    Indus-2 lattice optimization using multi-objective optimization algorithm
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Mumbai, Dec 21-24, 2015.
  28. Husain Riyasat, Jena S. K., Meena V. K., Kant P. K. & Ghodke A. D.
    Beta beat correction and improvement in Indus-2 storage ring performance
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Mumbai, Dec 21-24, 2015.
  29. Abdurrahim & Ghodke A. D. et.al.
    Beam Dynamics Studies during Commissioning of Two Undulators in Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Mumbai, Dec 21-24, 2015
  30. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D., Singh G. & Singh
    P.Effect of RF phase modulation on longitudinal parameters in Indus-2 electron storage ring
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, Nov. 19-22, 2013
  31. Saini R. S. and Ghodke A. D. 
    Beam optics design of electron beam transport line from proposed injector linac to the booster synchrotron.
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, Nov. 19-22, 2013

  32. Tyagi Y.*, Saini R.S., Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Development of a Transverse beam emittance and Twiss parameters measurement system for Transport line-1
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, Nov. 19-22, 2013

  33. Fakhri Ali Akbar & Ghodke A. D.
    Electron Beam Optics of Indus-2 in Presence of Insertion Devices
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, Nov. 19-22, 2013

  34. Sharma Amalendu and Ghodke A. D.
    Application Program Development and its use in Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference, VECC (InPAC), Kolkata, Nov. 19-22, 2013

  35. Sharma Amalendu, Singh P., Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    CSR studies for transfer line-2 at CTF3, CERN
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, Nov. 19-22, 2013

  36. Husain Riyasat & Ghodke A. D.
    Orbit response matrix analysis in Indus-2 at 2.5 GeV
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, Nov. 19-22, 2013

  37. Husain Riyasat, Vats D. K. & Ghodke A. D.
    Chromaticity measurement during beam energy ramp in Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, Nov. 19-22, 2013

  38. Jena S., Fakhri Ali Akbar & Ghodke A. D.
    Beam Dynamics Requirement for Proposed Booster Extraction Septum Magnet
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, Nov. 19-22, 2013

  39. Kant Pradeep, Fakhri Ali Akbar & Ghodke A. D.
    Exploration of tune point for Booster
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, Nov. 19-22, 2013

  40. Kant Pradeep, Fakhri Ali Akbar & Ghodke A. D.
    Field error tolerances of eddy current thin septum for Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, Nov. 19-22, 2013

  41. Fakhri Ali Akbar, Kant P., Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Low emittance electron beam optics commissioning in Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), IUAC, Delhi, Feb., 15-18, 2011

  42. Saini R. S., Ghodke A. D. and Singh Gurnam.
    Scheme for Beam Energy Spread Measurement of 20 MeV Microtron. 
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), IUAC, Delhi, Feb., 15-18, 2011

  43. Saini R. S., Biswas B.*, Pant K. K., Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam. 
    Electron Beam Optics Design of Variable Energy Beam Transport Line for a Tunable Infra-Red Free Electron Laser at RRCAT.     
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), IUAC, Delhi, Feb., 15-18, 2011

  44. Prajapati Sanjay Kumar, Fakhri Ali Akbar, Ghodke Ajay. D. and Singh Gurnam
    Modified Bunch Filling Scheme for Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), IUAC, Delhi, Feb., 15-18, 2011

  45. Singh G., et al.
    Status of Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), IUAC, Delhi, Feb., 15-18, 2011

  46. Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D.  & Singh Gurnam
    Exploring Storage Ring Lattices, Indus-1 & Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), IUAC, Delhi, Feb., 15-18, 2011

  47.  Husain Riyasat, Kant Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Beam Dynamics with New Booster Dipoles
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), IUAC, Delhi, Feb., 15-18, 2011

  48. Abdurrahim, Jain V. K., Ghodke A. D. and Singh Gurnam.
    Optimization of Ti Coating Thickness for Indus-2 Injection Kicker Ceramic Chamber
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), IUAC, Delhi, Feb., 15-18, 2011

  49. Jena Saroj, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Study of Ion trapping phenomena in Indus-2 storage ring
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), IUAC, Delhi, Feb., 15-18, 2011

  50. Saini R. S., Biswas B., Pant K. K., Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Electron beam optics design of variable energy beam transport line for a tunable infra-red free-electron laser at RRCAT
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), IUAC, Delhi, Feb., 15-18, 2011

  51. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Studies of beam lifetime in Indus-2 electron storage ring
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), IUAC, Delhi, Feb., 15-18, 2011

  52. Singh Gurnam, Ghodke A. D. & et al,
    Current status and improvements planned in Indus‐2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), RRCAT, Indore, Feb 10-13, 2009

  53. Saini R. S., Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Beam transmission in Beam Transfer Line-3 (TL-3) for Indus-2 storage ring.
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), RRCAT, Indore, Feb 10-13, 2009

  54. Sharma A, Goyal P. K., Ghodke A. D. and Singh Gurnam.
    Magnet field tolerances of dipole and quadrupole magnets for 1 GeV proton synchrotron
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), RRCAT, Indore, Feb 10-13, 2009

  55. Abdurrahim, Sharma A, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Optimization strategy for Transfer Line-2 for CTF3
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), RRCAT, Indore, Feb 10-13, 2009

  56. Jena S., Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Quadrupole to beam offset determination in Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), RRCAT, Indore, Feb 10-13, 2009

  57. Kant Pradeep, Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Effect of quadrupole fringing field on the tune of Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), RRCAT, Indore, Feb 10-13, 2009

  58. Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Closed orbit correction in Indus-2 using MICADO and SVD algorithms
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), RRCAT, Indore, Feb 10-13, 2009

  59. Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. &Singh G.
    Tune Dependent Beam Parameters Measurements in Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), RRCAT, Indore, Feb 10-13, 2009

  60. Sharma A., Ghodke A. D., Abdurrahim & Singh G.
    Design of the Transfer line-2 for the CTF-3 at CERN
    Asian Particle Accelerator conference (APAC), RRCAT, Indore, Jan 29- Feb 02, 2007

  61. Husain R., Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Analysis and correction of the measured COD in Indus-2
    Asian Particle Accelerator conference, RRCAT (APAC), Indore, Jan 29- Feb 02, 2007

  62. Singh G., et al.
    Indus-2: Machine Performance and Improvement studies,
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference, Mumbai (InPAC), November 1-4, 2006

  63. Riyasat Husain, Fakhri A. A., Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Four Orbit Bump and Injection Software for Indus-2 storage ring
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Mumbai, November 1-4, 2006

  64. Husain R., Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Tracking through Injection Septa and Indus-2 ring for few turn circulation of the electron beam
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Mumbai, November 1-4, 2006

  65. Husain R., Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Variation of the beam emittance and the energy spread during RAMP cycle in the booster synchrotron
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Mumbai, November 1-4, 2006

  66.  Kumar Pradeep, Husain R., Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Beam lifetime studies in Indus-2 electron storage ring
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Mumbai, November 1-4, 2006

  67. G. Singh, et al.
    Status of Synchrotron Radiation Source Indus-1
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, March 01-05, 2005

  68. Vats D. K., Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Trajectory calculation for the dipole magnets of Indus-2 storage ring
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, March 01-05, 2005

  69. Sharma Amalendu, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Preliminary non-linear studies of a 1 GeV proton synchrotron for spallation neutron source
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, March 01-05, 2005

  70. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Vertical emittance control in Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, March 01-05, 2005

  71. Sharma Amalendu, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Relaxed lattices for commissioning of Indus-2
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), VECC, Kolkata, March 01-05, 2005

  72. Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Sorting of magnets in Indus-2 storage ring
    DAE-BRNS Symposium on Nuclear Physics, BHU, Banaras, 2004

  73. Fakhri A. A., Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Injection into Indus-2,
    Asian Particle Accelerator conference (APAC), Gyengju, Korea, 2004

  74. Ghodke A. D., Sharma Amalendu & Singh G.
    Lattice design of a 1 GeV proton synchrotron
    Asian Particle Accelerator conference (APAC), Gyengju, Korea, 2004

  75. Singh G., et al.
    Status of Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Indore, Feb 2003

  76. Singh G., et al.
    Synchrotron radiation source Indus-1 
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Indore, Feb 2003

  77. Ghodke A. D., Walia A. A. S., Singh Gurnam, & Bhujle A.G.
    INDUS-2 orbit control – Algorithms and strategies
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Indore, Feb 2003

  78. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Linear betatron coupling and decoupling in INDUS-2 storage ring
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Indore, Feb 2003

  79. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Closed Orbit Correction in INDUS-2 Storage ring using Singular Value Decomposition
    Technique
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Indore, Feb 2003

  80. Sahoo Gajendra Kumar, Amalendu Sharma, Ghodke Ajay D. and Singh G.
    Preliminary Lattice for 1 GeV Proton Synchrotron
    Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (InPAC), Indore, Feb 2003

  81.  Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Effect of linear betatron coupling on amplitude beta function in Indus-2 storage ring
    Proceeding of DAE-BRNS symposium on Nuclear Physics, Vol 46 B, BARC, Mumbai, 2003

  82. Ghodke A. D., et al.
    Status of Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source
    Asian Particle Accelerator conference (APAC), China, 2001

  83.  Fakhri A. A., Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Local orbit correction scheme for the storage ring Indus-2
    DAE-BRNS Symposium on Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, 26-30 Dec. 2001

  84. Sahoo G. K., et al.
    Commissioning of the Indus-1 storage ring
    European Particle Accelerator Conference (EPAC), Vienna, June 2000

  85. Ghodke A. D., Fakhri A. A. & Singh G.
    Beam Position Stability in Indus-2 Storage ring
    International Symposium on Nuclear Physics, BARC, Mumbai, India, 18 -22 Dec. 2000,

  86. Sahoo G.K., Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Study of Indus-2 Lattice with finite dispersion
    Asian Particle Accelerator conference (APAC), Tsukuba, Japan, Mar., 23-27, 1998

  87. Sahoo G. K., Kalinin D. A., Ghodke A. D. , Kant P., Singh B., Singh G.
    Commissioning of synchrotron of Indus1 synchrotron radiation facility 
    CERN Accelerator School, Gjovik, Oslo, Norway, Sep., 1-12, 1997

  88. Kalinin D.A., Ghodke A. D., Singh G. 
    Collective beam instabilities in booster synchrotron 
    Physics and Technology of Particle Accelerators and Their Applications, Calcultta, Nov., 26-29, 1996

  89. Ghodke A. D., Singh G., Ramamurthi S.S.
    Trajectory calculations for dipole magnets of 700 MeV synchrotron
    IIIrd National seminar on physics and technology of particle accelerators and their applications (PATPAA-93), Calcutta, Nov., 25-27, 1993

  90. Singh G., Sahoo G.K., Ghodke A. D., Ramamurthi S.S. 
    Design features of Indus-2 
    International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Sources, CAT, Indore, India, Feb., 3-6, 1992

  91. Ghodke A. D., Singh G., Ramamurthi S.S. 
    The closed orbit distortion and its correction in Indus-1 
    International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Sources, CAT, Indore, India, Feb., 3-6, 1992

  92. Singh G., Sahoo G.K., Kalinin D.A., Singh B., Ghodke A. D., Ramamurthi S.S. 
    Design of Indus-I 
    Indo-USSR seminar on SRS physics technology and engineering, CAT Indore, India, Jan., 30-Feb.02, 1989

C. Internal Reports

  1. Ghodke A.D., Fakhri A.A., Kumar P., Sharma A., Husain R., Abdurrahim, Jena S.K., Kant P., Tyagi D.K., Kumar V., Arora P., Dhingra R.
    Preliminary beam dynamical considerations for high brilliance synchrotron radiation source (HBSRS), 
    RRCAT Report, no.10 , 2017

  2. Abdurrahim, Fakhri A.A., Husain R., Sharma A., Kumar P., Ghodke A.D.
    Beam Dynamics Studies and Commissioning of APPLE-II Undulator in Indus-2 Storage Ring, 
    RRCAT Report, no. 11 , 2017

  3. Sharma Amalendu, Goyal P. K., Kumar Vinit & Ghodke A. D.
    Preliminary lattice design of Accumulator Ring for Indian Spallation Neutron Source
    RRCAT/ 2014-02

  4. Jena S. K. & Ghodke A. D.
    Investigation of Ion Trapping and its Cure for Indus-2 Storage Ring,
    RRCAT/2012-07

  5. Kant Pradeep, Fakhri Ali Akbar , Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Study of Dynamic Aperture of Booster Synchrotron at Injection with New Magnets
    RRCAT/2012-06

  6. Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Chromaticity and Central RF Frequency Measurements in Indus-2
    RRCAT/2012-01

  7. Sharma Amalendu, Vats Deepak Kumar, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Application software MEI (MAD Extended Interface) and its use in nonlinear beam dynamics studies of Indus-2
    RRCAT/2011-04

  8. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Effect of closed orbit correction on stored beam lifetime in Indus-2 electron storage ring at beam energy 2 GeV
    RRCAT/2011-03

  9. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D., Singh G.
    Measurement of beam lifetime in Indus-1 electron storage ring
    RRCAT/2010-12

  10. Hussain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Indus-2 Tune measurement/ correction during beam energy ramp COD measurement/correction at injection and at 2.0 GeV
    RRCAT/2010-10

  11. Hussain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G. 
    Tune variation during ramp cycle in booster synchrotron
    RRCAT/2006-14

  12.  Hussain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Ramp software upgradation and beam energy ramp to 2 GeV
    RRCAT/2006-13

  13. Hussain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    COD correction algorithms for Indus-2 ring
    RRCAT/2006-12

  14. Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Beam emittance, energy spread and beam size variation during ramp cycle in booster synchrotron
    RRCAT/2006-11

  15. Sharma Amalendu, Rahim A., Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Design of optics and beam transport in Transfer Line – 2 of CLIC Testing Facility – 3 at CERN
    RRCAT/2006-10

  16. Sharma Amalendu, Rahim A., Ghodke A. D. and Singh Gurnam
    Preliminary beam optics design of Transfer Line – 2 for CLIC Testing Facility – 3 of CERN
    RRCAT/2006-09

  17. Saini R.S., et al.
    Commissioning of Beam Transport Line-3
    CAT/2005-13

  18. Sharma Amalendu, Ghodke Ajay D. and Singh G.
    Working point selection based on nonlinear studies of Indus-2
    CAT/2005-11

  19. Sharma Amalendu, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Relaxed optics for commissioning of Indus-2
    CAT/2004-05

  20. Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Sorting strategy of dipoles and quadrupoles in Indus-2
    CAT/2004/06

  21. Abdurrahim, Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. and Singh Gurnam.
    Chromaticity Correction Package in Indus-2
    CAT/2005-09

  22. Saini R. S., Ghodke A. D.  & Singh Gurnam.
    Preliminary design aspects of a beam transfer line from 50 MeV electron linac to the booster synchrotron.
    CAT /2005-14

  23. Saini R. S., Ghodke A. D., Singh G. & et al
    Commissioning of Beam Transfer Line-3
    CAT/2005-13

  24. Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Current setting software for Indus-2 Magnets
    CAT/2005-08

  25. Jena S. K., Husain, Riyasat, Ghodke A. D., Singh G.
    Tune Correction in Indus-2
    CAT/2005-12.

  26. Husain Riyasat, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Final placement of magnets in Indus-2
    CAT/2005-07

  27. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh Gurnam
    Vertical emittance control in Indus-2 electron storage ring
    CAT/2005-1.

  28. Vats D. K., Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Trajectory calculation for Indus-2 dipole magnets
    CAT/2004-21

  29. Saini R.S., Ghodke A. D.  & Singh Gurnam
    Preliminary Design Aspects of a High Energy Beam Transfer Line (HEBT) from a 100 MeV H¯ LINAC to a 1 GeV Synchrotron.
    CAT /2004-04

  30. Kant P., et al.,
    Studies of dynamic aperture for Synchrotron Radiation Source, INDUS-2,
    CAT/2002-17

  31. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Analysis of Linear Betatron Coupling and its Correction for Indus-2 electron storage ring
    CAT-2002-15

  32. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Studies of Transverse coupling and its correction for Indus-2 storage ring
    CAT/2001-12

  33. Kumar Pradeep, Ghodke A. D. & Singh G.
    Spectral decomposition of closed orbit distortion and its correction through the analysis of Singular value decomposition for Indus-2 storage ring
    CAT/2000-13

  34. Fakhri A. A., Ghodke A. D. and Singh G.,
    Study of beam position stability for storage ring Indus-2
    CAT/2000-02

  35. Sahoo G.K., Kumar P. and Singh G.,
    Determination of dynamic aperture for Indus-2
    CAT/99-10

  36. Kumar P., Sahoo G K. and Singh G.,
    Effect of coupled synchro-betatron oscillations in Indus-2
    CAT/99-14

  37. Fakhri A. A., Singh B. and Singh G.
    Effects of insertion devices on betatron functions and betatron tunes and method of correction for Indus-2
    CAT/98-6

  38. Singh B., and Singh G
    Effects of insertion devices on beam dynamics of Indus-2
    CAT/98-7

  39. Singh B., and Singh G,
    Modified injection scheme for Indus-1
    CAT/98-8

  40. Singh B., and Singh G, & Ghodke A D
    5T wiggler for Indus-1 and Indus-2
    CAT/98-9

  41. Kant Pradeep, Angal D. and Singh G.
    Design of transfer line for radiotherapy microtron
    CAT/97-1

  42. Ghodke A. D., Angal D. and Singh G.
    Studies of collective effects in booster synchrotron
    CAT/96-5

  43. Singh B., and Singh G, Ramamurthi S. S.
    Scheme of injection in Indus-2
    CAT/I/93-3

  44. Singh B., and Singh G, Ramamurthi S. S.
    Nonlinear dynamics with sextupoles in Indus-2
    CAT/I/93-2

  45. Ghodke A D, Singh G and Ramamurthi S S
    Flux and brightness calculations of Indus-2
    CAT/I/92-5

  46. Angal D, Singh G and Ramamurthi S S
    Ion trapping studies for Indus-1
    CAT/I/91-4

  47. Singh G and Ramamurthi S S
    Reduction of beam emittance of an electron storage ring by combination of focusing and defocusing gradient in bending magnets

  48. Ghodke A. D., Singh G. & Ramamurthi S.S.
    Correction of closed orbit distortion in booster synchrotron and Indus-I
    CAT/I/90-3

  49. Ghodke A. D., Singh G. & Ramamurthi S.S.
    Calculation of closed orbit distortion in the synchrotron and Indus-I
    CAT/I/90-7

  50. Angal D, Singh G and Ramamurthi S S,  
    Stability requirement of magnet power supplies of Indus-1
    CAT/I/89-7

  51. Singh G., Sahoo G. K., Kalinin D. A., Singh B., Ghodke A. D.
    Conceptual design of INDUS-I Beam Dynamics considerations
    88/CAT/EAP/30000/0001/D

The Section consists of the following two laboratories:

  1. Lattice Design Laboratory (Head: Dr. Ali Akbar Fakhri)
  2. Beam Instabilities Laboratory (Head: Dr. Pradeep Kumar)

Group Members

  1. Shri A.D. Ghodke, SOH
  2. Shri Pramod Radheshyam, SOG
  3. Dr. Ali Akbar Fakhri, SOG
  4. Dr. Pradeep Kumar, SOG
  5. Shri Riyasat Husain, SOF
  6. Shri Abdurrahim, SOF
  7. Shri Saroj Kumar Jena, SOF
  8. Shri Pradeep Kant, SOE
  9. Shri Vijay Kumar Meena, SOE
  10. Shri Deepak Kumar Tyagi, SOD
  11. Shri Suraj Prakash, SOC
  12. Shri Sanjay Kumar Prajapati, SAE

For more details, please contact:

Shri A.D. Ghodke
Head, Accelerator Physics Section
Phone: +91-731-248-2701
Fax: +91-731-248-8046
Email: ghodke (at) rrcat.gov.in
Content Manager: Sh. Saroj Kumar Jena
Email: s_jena (at) rrcat.gov.in

Last updated: June 2020
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