Cryomodule Development and Cryo-Engineering Application Section (CDCAS) is entrusted with responsibility to design and development 650 MHz Cryomodule for future Indian Superconducting linear accelerators. CDCAS has also accomplished successfully design and development Horizontal Test Cryostat for qualifying 650 MHz SCRF dressed cavity. It also successfully developed various indigenous techniques. This section has developed expertise in mechanical, cryogenics, instrumentation and electronics.
- Laser-welded 1.3 GHz SCRF niobium cavity developed at RRCAT
"The very first laser-welded 1.3 GHz SCRF niobium cavity developed at RRCAT using innovative laser welding technique reached an accelerating gradient (Eacc) of 31.6 MV/m with a quality factor (Q0 ) of 1.0 x 1010 at 2 Kelvin."
An innovative technique to fabricate superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) niobium cavities by laser welding has been developed at RRCAT. The first laser-welded 1.3 GHz SCRF cavity developed at RRCAT using this technique was recently tested at Fermilab, USA, and it reached an acceleration gradient (Eacc) of 31.6 MV/m with a quality factor (Q0) of 1.0x1010 at 2 Kelvin. This performance is similar to that of standard cavities fabricated by conventional process involving electron beam welding.
The first laser-welded 1.3 GHz SCRF niobium cavity developed at RRCAT and tested at Fermilab, USA showed Eacc of 31.6 MV/m with a Q0 of 1.0x1010 at 2K.
Dr. R.K.Sinha, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission & Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, discussing with Dr. P.D.Gupta, Director RRCAT the laser welding of SCRF niobium cavities.
RRCAT have developed laser cutting and welding techniques using in-house developed 10 kW fiber-coupled Nd:YAG lasers. These have been successfully deployed in a number of laser cutting and welding operations such as welding of brachytherapy assemblies for cancer treatment, welding of titanium shells for heart pacemakers, remote cutting of bellow-lips during en-masse coolant channels replacement campaign in three pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) resulting in a substantial cost savings and reduction in radiation exposure to the personnel. In the present instance, the laser welding was applied for development of innovative technology for fabrication of superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) cavities. The idea was conceptualized for the first time and developed at RRCAT. An international patent was earlier filed with title "Niobium based superconducting radio frequency cavities comprising niobium components joined by laser welding, method and apparatus for manufacturing such cavities" (Application no. 09812469.6-2302 PCT / IN20090621). A positive search report from International search authority was received for this patent application.
In parallel, efforts were launched for practical realization of the above technique. An in-house developed 10 kW fiber-coupled Nd:YAG laser was used for welding and a cavity welding rig was fabricated with the help of Indian industry. The laser welding experiments were carried out on more than 150 samples for parameter optimization, and a single-cell 1.3 GHz SCRF niobium cavity was fabricated. The cavity was processed and tested at Fermilab, USA. The cavity went up to an accelerating gradient of 31.6 MV/m at Q0 of 1.0x1010 at 2K.
10 kW fibre-coupled Nd:YAG laser
Superconducting cavity welding setup
The first laser-welded single-cell 1.3 GHz Nb cavity
Traditionally, electron beam welding technique is used for fabrication of SCRF niobium cavities where it is necessary to carry out the welding operation in a vacuum environment. The international experts are quite surprised at the high quality factor achieved in our laser-welded cavity, especially as the welding was carried out in an inert gas atmosphere. The advantages of the laser-welding technique are much lower cost, small heat affected zone, no necessity to have vacuum environment for welding, and enhanced rate of production. It is expected that this development will open up an entirely new R&D path which will be greatly followed by scientists and engineers engaged in accelerator programmes using superconducting cavities world over.
- Development of a Novel System for Transportation of Fruits and vegetables for Indian Farmers
A transportable, standalone system for fruits & vegetables (F&V), under any temperature (appropriate for given perishable good), has been developed at RRCAT. Refrigeration is provided by liquid nitrogen, which is stored in the system itself. The system has been developed keeping in view the socio-economic conditions of Indian farmers. This standalone system is a perfect example of Make in India initiative of Government giving effect to Lab to Land guideline.
A prototype system was then developed. It was tested under severe road conditions in peak summer. The system performed very well and gave an operational economy, which is 30-40% cheaper than that of conventional system. Enthused with the results, a full truck sized system was developed and tested on road. The results were very encouraging. The system is now being improved further to maximize its usability and making a fully industrialized version.
Liquid nitrogen is a commodity which is abundantly available in India in every taluka place. In bulk, it is cheap (Rs 10-12/litre) and 100% environment friendly. Air comprises of 78% nitrogen. It is known that large nitrogen liquefaction capacities, to a tune of 50% are idle in the country.
Initially a table top system was fabricated and tested to prove this concept. Challenge was the maintenance of any temperature in the range of -50 ℃ to +15 ℃, within a tolerance band of ± 2 ℃, with Liquid nitrogen which is as cold as -193 ℃. Achieving significant economy as compared to conventional mechanical reefers was a bigger challenge.
Prototype System which was road tested
Full truck sized system during road trial
- An air blower is the only dynamic component, so there will be minimum maintenance problems. This is a problem with conventional reefers, on “not so good” rural roads.
- Use of Liq. Nitrogen means ZERO impact on environment. No use of diesel for refrigeration.
- Operating cost will be very less (30-40%). Capital cost will be also lower by 10%.
- It is a self-contained system which can be mounted on any tractor trolley, truck, railway wagon or ship. In conventional systems containers are fixed on the truck chassis. Multi-modal transport is possible with this technology.
- Small capacity cryostats (400 ltrs) can keep the system cold for 2-3 days.
- No inputs are needed from the truck driver who are not so well educated in India (mostly).
- This system will eliminate the difference between “cold cargo” and “dry cargo”. Any road carrier can be used as a reefer. So, return cargo need not be a cold cargo.
- Highest flexibility possible :Any temperature above -50 ℃ is possible.
- Successful Design, Fabrication and Installation of Horizontal Test Stand Cryostat
A major milestone was accomplished by fabricating and installing a Horizontal Test (HTS) Cryostat at RRCAT. This system will be used to test, two superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities at cryogenic temperature before installing them inside cryomodules of the linear accelerator. (SCRF) cavities are the heart of linear accelerators built with SCRF technology. This is the third such facility in the world which can test two SCRF cavities in a single cycle.
These cryostats were designed and fabricated in India with help of FermiLab USA with twin objectives. Primary objective was to gave rich design experience to DAE engineers, in design of such complicated cryogenic equipment. Second objective was to provide technical experience for fabricating such advanced system to Indian Industry (In this case M/s. INOX India Pvt. Ltd., Vadodara). One of these cryostats has been installed in RRCAT and other will be installed in FermiLab. It will showcase technical prowess of DAE and strength of Indian industry.
3-D Model Of HTS Cryostat
Fabricated HTS Cryostat
- Sh. Prashant Khare, Head, Cryomodule Development & Cryo-engineering Application Section
- hri S.K. Awasthi
- Sh. Suresh Chandra Patidar
- Sh. Ashish Kumar Shukla
- Sh. Devendra Sinnarkar
- Sh. Gaurav Agrawal
- Sh. Lakshminarayanan A.
- Sh. Rahul
- Sh. Rupul Ghosh, Head, Cryo-Module Engg. Application Lab.
- hri Amit Srivastava
- Sh. Abhishek Jain
- Sh. Lakshman Singh
- Sh. Gayadin Yadav
- Sh. Shailesh G. Gilankar, Head, Cryo-Module Design Lab.
- Sh. Hemant Kumar Patel
- Sh. Ankit Tiwari
- Sh. Divakar Sharma
- Sh. Bablesh Meena
- Sh. Deepak Kumar Arzare, Head, Cryo-Module Infrastructure Development Lab.
- Sh. Chintan Gupta
- Sh. Manoj Kushwaha
- Sh. Jagdish Thate
- Sh. Pangothu Prabhakar
List of Publications and patents 2010 onwards
- “A liquid nitrogen based portable refrigeration system for carrying refrigerated goods” - Patent Application No. 201821009008 dated 12/3/2018.
- “Niobium based superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities comprising niobium components joined by laser welding, method and apparatus for manufacturing such cavities”, Patent: US grant US9352416B2, May 31, 2016
- P. Khare, S. G. Gilankar, H. Patel, A. Lakshminarayanan, R. Chaube, R. Ghosh, A. Jain, A Tiwari, D. Arzare, S. C. Joshi, J. P. Ozelis and T. H. Nicol,” Design and Development of 650 MHz Cryomodule and Horizontal Test Stand at RRCAT”, presented at InPAC-2018, RRCAT, Indore, Jan., 09-12, 2018
- R. Ghosh, Abhishek Jain, S.C. Patidar, Rajeev Chaube, Chintan Gupta, Lakshman Singh, Diwakar Sharma, A. Lakshminarayanan, B.N. Upadhyaya, R. Arya, K. S. Bindra, Prashant Khare and S.C. Joshi,” Infrastructure development for 650 MHz SCRF cavity fabrication by laser welding”, presented at InPAC-2018, RRCAT, Indore, Jan., 09-12, 2018
- S. G. Gilankar, P. Khare, H. Patel, A. Lakshminarayanan, R. Chaube, R. Ghosh, A. Jain, A Tiwari, D. Arzare, S. C. Joshi, J. P. Ozelis, A. Hocker, M. G. Geynisman, C. M. Reid, V. V. Poloubotko, D. V. Mitchell , T. J. Peterson and T. H. Nicol,” Status of fabrication of HTS-2 Cryostat for testing two 650 MHz SCRF cavities”, presented at InPAC-2018 , RRCAT, Indore, Jan., 09-12, 2018
- H. Patel , P. Khare, S. G. Gilankar, A. Lakshminarayanan, R. Ghosh, A. Tiwari, S. C. Joshi, J. P. Ozelis, A. Hocker, M. G. Geynisman, C. M. Reid, V. V. Poloubotko, D. V. Mitchell, T. J. Peterson and T. H. Nicol, “Design of Helium Relief System of Horizontal Test Cryostat”, presented at InPAC-2018, RRCAT, Indore, Jan., 09-12, 2018
- Abhishek Jain, R. Ghosh, S.C. Patidar, Chintan Gupta, Lakshman Singh, Diwakar Sharma, A. Lakshminarayanan, B. N. Upadhyaya, R. Arya, K. S. Bindra, Prashant Khare, S.C. Joshi, K. K. Mistry, S. S. K. Sonti and P. N. Prakash, “Challenges in fabrication of QWR cavity by laser welding technique”, presented at InPAC-2018, RRCAT, Indore, Jan., 09-12, 2018
- Ankit Tiwari, Shailesh Gilankar, Hemant Kumar Patel, Rupul Ghosh, Deepak Arzare, A. Laxminarayan, Prashant Khare, Satish Chandra Joshi and Mohit Dashore,” Challenges in fabrication of QWR cavity by laser welding technique”, presented at InPAC-2018, RRCAT, Indore, Jan., 09-12, 2018
- Chintan Gupta, Suresh Chandra Patidar, Rupul Ghosh, Abhishek Jain, Prashant Khare and S. C. Joshi,” Target maneuvering system for laser welding of SCRF cavity components”, presented at InPAC-2018, RRCAT, Indore, Jan., 09-12, 2018
- Devendra Sinnarkar, Suresh Chandra Patidar, Chintan Gupta, V. K. Dubey, Piyush Saxena, Divakar Sharma, Shailesh Gilankar, Rajiv Jain, Prashant Khare and Viraj Bhanage,” Development of Data Acquisition System for Online Temperature Monitoring in Cryomodule Component Test Rig”, presented at InPAC-2018, RRCAT, Indore, Jan., 09-12, 2018
- S Gilankar, P Khare, R Ghosh, A Jain, A Tiwari, A Lakshminarayanan and P K Kush, "Development of a cryomodule for beta 0.61, 650 MHz SCRF cavities at RRCAT", 26th National Symposium on Cryogenics and Superconductivity (NSC-26), VECC, Kolkata, February 22-24, 2017
- A Tiwari, S Gilankar, P Khare, R Ghosh, A Jain, A Lakshminarayanan and P K Kush, "Design of 70 K thermal shield of a cryomodule for beta 0.61, 650 MHz SCRF cavities", 26th National Symposium on Cryogenics and Superconductivity (NSC-26), VECC, Kolkata, February 22-24, 2017
- Ashish Kumar Shukla, Hemant K Patel, et al “Safety System Assessment of Cold box for Large Capacity Helium liquefaction system”, 26th National Symposium on Cryogenics & Superconductivity” 22-24 Feb 2017, VECC-Kolkata.
- Rekhya Naik, Hemant K Patel, et al “Development of cryostat for calibration of cryogenics temperature sensors”, 26th National Symposium on Cryogenics & Superconductivity” 22-24 Feb 2017, VECC-Kolkata.
- Khare P, Gilankar S, Kush P K, A. Lakshminarayanan, Choubey R, Ghosh R, Jain A, Patel H, Gupta P D, Hocker A, Ozelis J P, Geynisman M, Reid C, Poloubotko V, Mitchell D, Peterson T J and Nicol T H, “Design of horizontal test cryostat for testing two 650 MHz cavities: cryogenic considerations”, paper presented at 26th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference International Cryogenic Material Conference 2016 (ICEC-26- ICMC 2016), Manekshaw Centre, New Delhi, 07-11 March 2016
- Khare Prashant, Gilankar Shailesh, Ghosh Rupul, Saxena Piyush, Chaube Rajeev, Jain A., Gupta C., Sinnarkar D., Tiwari A., Singh L., Sharma D., Kushwaha M., Lakshminarayanan A, Vora H.S., Kush P.K., Roger Vincent, Nicol Tom, “Design of a standalone cryomodule for 650MHz SCRF cavities of ISNS : New Concepts and Experimental results”, Presented at InPAC-2015, TIFR, Mumbai, 21-24 December 2015
- Khare P., Upadhyay B., Ghosh R., Arya R., Jain Abhishek, Gilankar S., Gupta C., Singh Laxman, Sharma D., Lakshminarayanan A., Kush P.K., Oak S.M., Gupta P.D., "Successful development of world’s first laser welded SCRF cavity at RRCAT technique and advantages", Presented at InPAC-2015 , TIFR, Mumbai, Dec., 21-24, 2015
- P. K. Sahani, Haridas G, Hemant K Patel, et al “Radiation shielding evaluation of Vertical Test Stand facility AT RRCAT”, Indian Particle Accelerator Conference InPAC-2015, 21 - 24 December 2015, Mumbai, India.
- P. K. Kush, Prashant Khare, S G Gilankar, Rupul Ghosh, Abhishek Jain, R. Chaube, A. Lakshminarayanan, Andy Hocker, Thomas J Peterson, Brian D Degraff, Ronak Patel, “Design of a Horizontal Test Stand at RRCAT for Testing of Two SCRF Cavities ", presented a paper at 24th National Symposium on Cryogenics at IPR, Ahmadabad, January 21-24, 2013"
- P. K. Kush, Prashant Khare, S G Gilankar, Rupul Ghosh, Abhishek Jain, R. Chaube, A. Lakshminarayanan, Yuri Orlov, Thomas J Peterson, “Design and Prototyping efforts towards development of a cryomodule for 650MHz SCRF cavities", Presented a paper at 24th National Symposium on Cryogenics at IPR, Ahmedabad, January 21-24, 2013
- Prashant Khare, B. N. Upadhyay, Jishnu Dwivedi, Abhishek Jain, Rupul Ghosh, Rajesh Arya, Shailesh Gilankar, Chintan Gupta, R.S. Sandha, G.V. Kane, P. Ramsankar, Girdhar Mundra, Rakesh Kaul, P.Sh.vastava, C.K. Pithawa, V.C. Sahni, P.K. Kush, S.B. Roy, S.C. Joshi, S.M. Oak, P.D. Gupta, Camille Ginsburg, Allan Rowe, Anna Grassillina, Charlie Cooper, Shekhar Mishra, " New Technique and Result of Laser Welded SCRF Cavity Developed at RRCAT”, presented at 16th International Conference on RF Superconductivity, SRF2013, Paris, France, September 23-27, 2013
- M.Tech Thesis Titled " Development of Cavity Support System for Cryomodule of 650 MHz SCRF Cavities" was submitted to Homi Bhabha National Institute and Recommended for awarding Degree of Master of Technology by Thesis Examining Committee.
- Prashant Khare, Pradeep Kush, Shailesh Gilankar, Rupul Ghosh, Abhishek Jain,A. Lakshminarayanan, RRCAT, Indore, "An Approach towards Developing Cryomodule for Indian SNS", presented at 2nd International Workshop on ADS and Thorium Utilization at BARC, Mumbai during December 11-14, 2011
- Thomas Peterson, Mike Foley, Camille Ginsburg, Chuck Grimm, James Kerby, Yuriy Orlov, Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510, USA. Rupul Ghosh, Shailesh Gilankar, Abhishek Jain, Prashant Khare, Pradeep Kumar Kush, A. Laxminarayanan, RRCAT, Indore, India, "650 MHz Cryomodules For Project X At Fermilab – Requirements And Concepts", presented at 15th international conference on RF Superconductivity, SRF 2011, Chicago.
- Prashant Khare, Pradeep Kush, Shailesh Gilankar, Vikas Jain, Rupul Ghosh, Abhishek Jain, A.Lakshminarayanan, RRCAT, Indore, India. Camille Ginsburg, Chuck Grimm, Jim Kerby, Yuriy Orlov, Tom Peterson, Fermi Lab, Batavia, IL 60510, USA, "Design Efforts for Cryomodule of 650MHz SCRF Cavities at RRCAT", presented at Indian Particle Accelerator Conference, 2011 (InPAC2011), New Delhi, 15th-18th Feb. 2011 (Manuscript not submitted)
- P. K. Kush, P. Khare, S. G. Gilankar, V. Jain, R. Ghosh, A. Jain & A. Lakshminarayanan, RRCAT, Indore, India A. Hocker, V. Poloubotko, Fermilab., Batavia, IL 60510, U.S.A, "Design of Horizontal Test Stand (HTS 2) For SCRF Cavities At RRCAT", presented at Indian Particle Accelerator Conference, 2011 (InPAC2011), New Delhi, 15th-18th Feb. 2011
- Prashant Khare, Pradeep Kush, Shailesh Gilankar, Vikas Jain, Rupul Ghosh, Abhishek Jain, A. Lakshminarayanan, RRCAT, Indore, "Technical Challenges in Cryomodule Design", presented at Theme Meeting on Challenges of Mechanical Engineering for Superconducting Accelerators, VECC Kolkata, 25th-26th March 2011
For more details, please contact:
Sh. Prashant Khare
Head, Cryomodule Development & Cryoengineering Applications Section
Email: prashant (at) rrcat.gov.in
Sh. Suresh Chandra Patidar
Email: scpatidar (at) rrcat.gov.in
Last updated: November 19