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Indus-1 Beamlines

ARPES Beamline

Introduction

The Angle Resolved Photo Electron Spectroscopy (ARPES) beamline has been set up by Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, BARC. The experimental station of the beamline has been recently upgraded with CCD based electron analyzer system to facilitate PES studies of solid samples in angle integrated mode. In the near future we are going to upgrade the sample manipulator so that beamline can be used for ARPES studies of oriented thin film & single crystal samples also.

Beamline

The monochromator of the angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) beamline is a 1.4meter toroidal grating type (Jobin Yvon-TGM-1400) covering the wavelength region of 40 to 1080Å with three gratings to cover the entire wavelength region, which is interchangeable without breaking the vacuum. The optics of the ARPES beamline consists of a pre-focusing mirror, the monochromator, and a post-focusing mirror. All the focusing optical elements are toroidal, coated with platinum on zerodur blank. The side view of the optical layout of the beamline is given in figure below. The experimental station of the beamline is capable to record angle dependent photoelectron spectra of solid samples with a facility to prepare the samples in situ. Size of the beam spot at the sample is approximately 1mm x1 mm. Flux at the sample is of the order of 1010 photons/sec./mm2.

Photograph of the Beamline

Photograph of the beamline

Beamline Parameters

Parameter

Pre-mirror

Post-mirror

TGM

Acceptance (mrad)

8.9(H)x5.2(v)

14.3x8.8

20x12.4

Entrance Arm Length (mm)

3400

1102

1000

Exit Arm Length (mm)

1500

1155

1414

Angle Of Incidence

85.5°

85.5°

162°

Meridional Radius, R (mm)

26732

14380

7977

Sagittal Radius (mm)

165

88.5

182.3

Demagnification Ratio

2.3: 1

0.95: 1

§

Size (mm × mm)

240 × 30

115 × 15

75 × 20

Coating

P†

P†

P†

Gratings

Grating 1 (1800 Grooves/mm)
Grating 2 (600 Grooves/mm)
Grating 3 (200 Grooves/mm)

Experimental Station

The experimental station is capable of both angle integrated as well as Angle resolved PES spectra of solid/thin film samples using a CCD-MCP based electron analyser system(PHOIBOS-150). Presently system is ready for use in angle integrated and angle dependent modes of PES studies. A view of the corresponding experimental station is shown in the figure below. The analysis chamber (mu-metal) is equipped with a sample manipulator, which is useful to position the sample and record the data at any temperature in the range 300 – 1000 K. The ARPES system also has a twin-anode X-ray source for XPS (ESCA) studies, He discharge lamp for high resolution PES, Ar ion sputter gun, LEED-Auger. The overall experimental energy resolution of the beamline is in the range of 140meV-400meV. A load–lock chamber is attached to the analyzer chamber which enables quick transfer of the sample from atmosphere. The sample size, which can be accommodated on the sample holder, is of area 15 mm2 and 0.5mm thickness. The size of the beam spot is about 1mm X 1mm. The type of the samples that can be taken up for studies on this beamline should be of non-volatile and UHV compatible solids.

Features

Electron analyzer PHOIBOS-150 (150 mm mean radius)
Electron detector MCP based 2d CCD detector, capability for AIPES & Angular mapping PES Measurements
Sample manipulations 400mm (vertical), ±12.5mm(X & Y), two tilts
Vacuum in analysis chamber < 5x10-10 mbar.
Incident flux monitoring Online normalization of photon flux by sample ground Current/ post mirror ground current
Sample temperature range 300-1000 K
Sample Loading Quick accessed load lock facility
Sample preparation Sputtering & annealing facility
Lab sources He discharge and twin anode X-Ray

Photograph Showing Experimental Station

Photograph showing experimental station

Some results from the beamline

ARPES study of Ag (100):

Ag (100) single crystal has been used as an example to test the performance of the ARPES system. A set of normal emission angle resolved PES spectra were recorded using photon energies of 12eV to 19eV with incidence angle of 45degree. The spectra are given in the adjacent figure. Dispersion, E(k), of band is clearly seen in the spectra which matches well with that of reported in the literature.


ARPES study of CeAg2Ge2 single crystal:

Angle resolved photoemission data were collected for CeAg2Ge2 single crystal at normal emission as a function of photon energy. Figure on the right shows (a) raw data (b) after subtracting the O3VV and O2VV auger features of Ce from the raw data, showing the clear dispersion marked with the solid line. Markers show the different features in the valence band. Some of the features in the valence band are matching well with the Band structure calculation of CeAg2Ge2 along Gamma-Z direction.
ARPES study of CeAg2Ge2 single crystal


ARPES studies of epitaxial thin films of Fe3O4 of different orientations:

Magnetic transition metal oxides have recently attracted renewed attention due to the unique properties, such as metal-insulator phase transitions, superconductivity, and CMR. Among them Fe3O4 is an important material owing to its technological applications in catalysis and magnetic recording media. With this objective in mind ARPES data were collected to understand the electronic band structure of Fe3O4 thin films of different orientations.


ARPES studies of InN and InP:

The PES studies of InN and InP was carried out for the thin film samples of I)InN/Saphire, ii)InN/GaN/Saphire (grown at TIFR), iii) InP thin film on InP (grown at RRCAT) and InP wafer. . PES spectra of these samples were recorded as a function of photon energy and photoelectron emission angle. Spectra were recorded before and after sputtering of all the samples. Analysis of the observed spectra shows In cluster formation on all the samples after sputtering for 30secs.



PES studies of W/Si multilayer samples:

PES studies on W/Si multilayers was investigated to understand the reaction at the interfaces. It is observed that there is silicide formation at the interface.

Research Experiments

  1. PES studies of GaP on silicon and germanium wafers( ISUD, RRCAT)
  2. Resonant Photoemission studies of Mo-Re alloy syatem( M & AASD, RRCAT)
  3. PES studies of oxide thin films,( ISUD, RRCAT)
  4. Resonant photoemission studies of Fe, Al and Fe-Al alloy ( ISUD, RRCAT)
  5. PES studies of FeSi3 (MSD, BARC)
  6. PES studies of TiO2( IGCAR)
  7. PES studies of ZnO on LiAlO2 and GaP wafer( ISUD, RRCAT)

Publications

  1. Epitaxial growth and band alignment properties of NiO/GaNheterojunction for light emitting diode applications,
    KiranBaraik, S. D. Singh, Yogesh Kumar, R. S. Ajimsha, P. Misra, S. N. Jha, and Tapas Ganguli,
    Applied Physics Letter 110, 191603 (2017).

  2. Band alignment and charge transfer pathway in three phase anatase-rutile-brookite TiO2 nanotubes: An efficient photocatalyst for water splitting,
    L.K. Preethi, Tom Mathews, ManglaNand, S.N. Jha, Chinnakonda S. Gopinath, S. Dash,
    Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 218, 9–19 (2017).

  3. Effect of dry air on interface smoothening in reactive sputter deposited Co/Ti multilayer,
    A. Biswas, A. Porwal, Debarati Bhattacharya, C. L. Prajapat, ArnabGhosh, ManglaNand, C. Nayak, S. Rai, S. N. Jha, M. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharyya, S. Basu and N.K. Sahoo,
    Accepted in Journal of Applied Surface Science. 416, 168(2017).

  4. Electronic Structure of FeAl Alloy Studied by Resonant Photoemission Spectroscopy and Ab Initio Calculations, DebashisMondal,
    Soma Banik, C. Kamal, ManglaNand, S. N. Jha, D. M. Phase, A. K. Sinha,AparnaChakrabarti, A. Banerjee,TapasGanguli,
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 688, 187 (2016).

  5. Interface structure in nanoscale multilayers near continuous-to-discontinuous regime,
    P. C. Pradhan, A. Majhi, M. Nayak, ManglaNand, P. Rajput, D. K. Shukla, A. Biswas, S. K. Rai, S. N. Jha, D. Bhattacharyya, D. M. Phase, and N. K. Sahoo,
    Journal of Applied Physics 120, 045308 (2016).

  6. Raman and photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of high-purity niobiummaterials: Oxides, hydrides, and hydrocarbons,
    Nageshwar Singh, M.N. Deo, ManglaNand, S.N. Jha, and S.B. Roy,
    Journal of Applied Physics 120, 114902 (2016).

  7. Determination of band offsets at strained NiO and MgOheterojunction for MgO as an interlayer in heterojunction light emitting diode applications,
    S. D. Singh, ManglaNand, R. S. Ajimsha, AnujUpadhyay, Rajiv Kamparath, C. Mukherjee, P. Misra, A. K. Sinha, S. N. Jha, and Tapas Ganguli,.
    Applied Surface Science 389, 835 (2016).

  8. Structural, electronic structure, and band alignment properties at epitaxial NiO/Al2O3 heterojunction evaluated from synchrotron based X-ray techniques,
    S. D. Singh, ManglaNand, Arijeet Das, R. S. Ajimsha, AnujUpadhyay, Rajiv Kamparath, D. K. Shukla, C. Mukherjee, P. Misra, S. K. Rai, A. K. Sinha, S. N. Jha, D. M. Phase, and Tapas Ganguli,
    Journal of Applied Physics 119, 165302 (2016).

  9. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of nano In clusters Schottky barriers on sputtered InP,
    Shailendra Kumar, C. Mukherjee, V.K. Dixit, S.D. Singh and S.N. Jha,
    Applied Surface Science, 258, 143–146(2011).

  10. Electronic structure of CeAg2Ge2 studied by resonant and angle-resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy,
    Soma banik, S. K. Deb , A. Chakrabarti, A. Thamizhavel, D.M. Phase  and S . N. Jha,
    Diamond Light Source Proceedings, Vol 1, e138, page 1 of 4 (2011), SRMS-2011.

  11. Optical and X-ray photoelectron Spectroscopy of PbGeO3 and Pb5Ge3O11 single crystals S.C. Sabharwal,
    S.N. Jha and Sangeeta,
    Bull. Mater. Science. 33, 395-400(2010).

  12. Band Mapping of CeAg2Ge2 using Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,
    Soma Banik, Aparna Chakrabarti , S.K. Deb, S.N. Jha, S. V.N. Bhaskara Rao, Devang A. Joshi, A. Thamizhavel and S.K. Dhar, 
    Solid State communication,150, 1936-1939(2010).

  13. Valence band electronic structure of Pr1-xSrxMnO3 from photoemission studies
    P Pal, M.K Dalai, B.R. Sekhar, S.N. Jha, S.V. N. Bhaskara Rao, N.C. Das, C. Martin and F. Studer,
    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter Vol.17, 2993 (2005).

  14. Valence bands offset between depleted semiconductors measured by photoelectron spectroscopy,
    Shailendra Kumar, S.N. Jha, Jagannath, Tapas Ganguli, S.V.N. Bhaskara Rao, N.C.Das,”,
    Applied Surface Science, vol.229, 324-332 (2004).

  15. Development of Angle Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy Beamline at Indus-1 Synchrotron Radiation Source,
    N.C. Das, S.N. Jha, S.V.N. Bhaskara Rao, B.N. Rajasekhar, S. S. Bhattacharya, S.K. Sikka,, Jagannath, A.V. Korgaonkar, K.G. Bhushan, J.V. Yakhmi, and V.C. Sahani, 
    Journal of optics, India, Vol 32, 27 (2003).

Conference

  1. Investigation of band alignment in Co doped ZnO/ZnOheterostructure,
    Girish, Parasmani Rajput, ManglaNand, Manvendra Kumar, Mukul Gupta, S. N. Jha, D. Bhattacharyya, and N. K. Sahoo,
    AIP Conference Proceedings 1832, 120034 (2017).

  2. Development of high damage threshold multilayer thin film beam combiner for laser application,
    ManglaNand, Babita, S. Jena, R. B. Tokas, P. Rajput, C. Mukharjee, S. Thakur, S. N. Jha, and N. K. Sahoo,
    AIP Conference Proceedings 1731, 080051 (2016).

Contacts

Dr. M. N. Deo
(mndeo(at)barc.gov.in)
Head, Atomic & Molecular Physics Division
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Mumbai – 400 085
Dr. S.N.Jha
(snjha(at)rrcat.gov.in)
Room No.-4 Indus-2
RRACAT
Indore-452013
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