Photophysics beamline

Beamline overview

The Angle Resolved Photo Electron Spectroscopy (ARPES) beamline on Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source (SRS) covers the photon energy range of 12 to 300 eV to carry out valence band PES measurements in angle integrated as well as angle resolved mode. The experimental station of the beamline has been recently upgraded with 5 axis cryo manipulator, a separate sample preparation chamber to facilitate in-situ PES studies of solid samples including thin films. Measurements can be performed on thin films and pellet samples as well as in Angle Resolved mode on oriented thin film & single crystal samples.

The Beamline
The Beamline

Beamline parameters & Optical layout

Energy Range12- 300 eV
Flux~1010 photons/sec./mm2
Resolving power E/ΔE1,000-5,000
Beam Size1 mm(H) Χ 1 mm (V)
MonochromatorToroidal Grating Monochromator

The Beamline
  1. The beamline optics consists of a pre-focusing mirror, monochromator, and a post-focusing mirror.
  2. All the focusing optical elements are toroidal, coated with platinum on zerodur substrate.
  3. The beamline uses a 1.4-meter toroidal grating monochromator (Jobin Yvon-TGM-1400) for covering the energy range of 12 to 300 eV with three inter changeable gratings (200 Grooves/mm, 600 Grooves/mm and 1800 Grooves/mm)

Experimental station

The experimental station consists of:

  1. Analysis chamber
  2. Preparation chamber
  3. Thin film deposition chamber
  4. Load Lock chamber
Experimental station
Experimental station

A) Analysis chamber
Chamber materialMu metal
Base vacuum< 5x10-11 mbar
Electron analyserMake: Phoibos 150 HSA
Energy resolution: 2 meV (Overall resolution with beamline: 140 meV- 400 meV)
Angular resolution: 0.1°
Flood gunFor insulating sample
Sample manipulatori) 5-axis cryo (CCR based) manipulator (RT to 6 K)
ii) Provision for sample biasing (up to 20 V)
Lab sources:He discharge lamp & Twin anode (Al/Mg) x-ray source

B) Preparation chamber
Base pressure < 5x10-10 mbar
In-situ sample preparation• Ar ion sputtering
• Annealing up to 800° C
• Scrapping & cleaving
LEED/AUGEROperating range: 10 eV- 3000 eV

C) Thin film deposition chamber
Base vacuum < 2x10-9 mbar
Deposition techniquePLD based with Nd:YAG laser
Sample (substrate) transfer facilityIn-situ transfer of thin film sample to analysis chamber

D) Load Lock chamber
Time to achieve base vacuum of ~10-9 mbar after loading sample from atmosphere ~ 8 hours
Sample transferSample can be transferred from atmosphere and in vacuum from PLD chamber (for in-situ PES measurement)
Sample parkingFor 3 samples in load lock chamber and 5 samples in parking

Application Areas

  1. Spectroscopy of buried interfaces
  2. Elemental composition
  3. Chemical state information
  4. Band offset measurement of hetro-junction
  5. Work function measurement
  6. Functional materials, phase transition studies as a function of temperature
  7. Band structure

1. Electronic structure of rare-earth semiconducting ErN thin films determined with synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles analysis;
Krithika Upadhya, Rajendra Kumar, Madhusmita Baral, Shilpa Tripathi, S. N. Jha, Tapas Ganguli and Bivas Saha;
Physical Review B 105 (2022) 075138.
2. Determination of band alignment in liquid exfoliated few-layer WSe2/SiO2 interface;
Rahul, Sunil K. Arora, S.N. Jha, Yogesh Kumar;
Materials Letters, 311 (2022) 131600.

1. Study of band alignment at MoS2/SiO2 interfaces grown by pulsed laser deposition method,
Sneha Sinha, Sujit Kumar, Sunil K. Arora, S.N. Jha, Yogesh Kumar, Vinay Gupta and Monika Tomar,
Journal of Applied Physics 129 (2021) 115303.
2. WS2 Nanosheet/Si p-n Heterojunction Diodes for UV-Visible Broadband Photodetection;
Pal, Suparna; Mukherjee, Subhrajit; Jangir, Ravindra; Nand, Mangla; Jana, Dipankar; Mandal, Satish; Bhunia, Satyaban; Mukharjee, Chandrachur; Jha, Shambhu Nath; Ray, Samit;
ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 4 (2021) (3241).

1. “Synthesis and Characterization of Pure and Nd-Doped Monazite”,
Yogesh Kumar, S. N. Jha, A. Arya, R. K. Sharma and V. Srihari,
AIP Conference Proceedings 2265, 030290 (2020); 64th DAE Solid State Physics Symposium, December 18-22 (2019) Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur.
2. Partial density of 3d electrons in CrSi probed by resonant photoemission,
Soma Banik, Shilpa Tripathi, and S. N. Jha
AIP Conference Proceedings 2265 (2020) 030366.
3. Development of UHV pulsed laser deposition set-up for in-situ photoelectron spectroscopic study at ARPES beamline, Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source, India,
Mangla Nand, Yogesh Kumar, Ashutosh Dwivedi, Shilpa Tripathi, Babita, R. J. Choudhary, S. N. Jha,
Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A 986 (2021) 164805.
4. Structural and optical properties of transparent, tunable bandgap semiconductor: α-(AlxCr1-x)2O3,
Ravindra Jangir, Velaga Srihari, Ashok Bhakar, C. Kamal, A. K. Yadav, P. R. Sagdeo, Dharmendra Kumar, Shilpa Tripathi, S. N. Jha, and Tapas Ganguli,
Journal of Applied Physics 128 (2020) 135703.
5. Large positive magnetoresistance and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction in CrSi driven by Cr 3d localization;
Soma Banik, M. K. Chattopadhyay, Shilpa Tripathi, R. Rawat & S. N. Jha;
Scientific Reports, 10 (2020), 12030.
6. Investigations on epitaxy and lattice distortion of sputter deposited β-Ga2O3 layers on GaN templates;
Sahadeb Ghosh, Himanshu Srivastava, P. N. Rao, Mangla Nand, Pragya Tiwari, Arvind Srivastava, S. N. Jha, Sanjay Rai, Shreyashkar Singh, Tapas Ganguli,
Semiconductor Science and Technology, 35 (2020), 085024.
7. Crystalline Bi2Se3 topological insulator films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering;
R. Kumar, A. K. Yadav, A. Biswas, Mangla Nand, J. Bahadur, S. Ghosh, S. N. Jha, D. Bhattacharyya ;
Vacuum, 177 (2020) 109366.
8. Localization of electronic states resulting from electronic topological transitions in the Mo1−xRex alloys: A photoemission study; L S Sharath Chandra, Shyam Sundar, Soma Banik, S. K. Ramjan, K. K. Chattopadhyay, S.N. Jha & S B Roy, J. Appl. Phys. 127 (2020) 163906.
9. Study of valence band electronic states of near-surface atoms of niobium used for superconducting cavity;
Nageshwar Singh, Mangla Nand S. N. Jha and S. Raghavendra;
J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 240 (2020) 146942.
10. Si compatible MoO3/MoS2 core-shell quantum dots for wavelength tunable photodetection in wide visible range;
Suparna Pal, Subhrajit Mukherjee, Mangla Nand, Himanshu Srivastava, H. S. Patel, S. K. Rai, C. Mukherjee, S. N. Jha, S. K. Ray;
Applied Surface Science, 502 (2020) 144196.

1. Effect of Y2O3 doping on HfO2 thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD): XPS studies,
Mangla Nand, P. Rajput, R. J. Choudhary, S. N. Jha,
AIP Conference Proceedings 2115 (1) (2019) 030330.
2. Electrical and optical properties of low-bandgap oxide Zn2Mo3O8 for optoelectronic applications,
Pramod Ravindra, Madhusmita Baral, Tathagata Biswas, Mangla Nand, SN Jha, Eashwer Athresh, Rajeev Ranjan, Manish Jain, Tapas Ganguli, Sushobhan Avasthi,
Thin Solid Films 677 (2019) 95-102.

1. Studies on structural and optical gap tunability in a-(GaxCr(1-x))2O3 solid solutions,
Ravindra Jangir, Dharmendra Kumar, Velaga Srihari, Ashok Bhakar, A.K. Poswal, P.R. Sagdeo, Mangla Nand, S.N. Jha, Pragya Tiwari, Tapas Ganguli,
Journal of Alloys and compounds 766 (2018) 876.

1. Epitaxial growth and band alignment properties of NiO/GaN heterojunction for light emitting diode applications,
Kiran Baraik, S. D. Singh, Yogesh Kumar, R. S. Ajimsha, P. Misra, S. N. Jha, and Tapas Ganguli,
Appl. Phys. Lett. 110 (2017) 191603. doi: 10.1063/1.4983200.
2. Band alignment and charge transfer pathway in three phase anatase-rutile-brookite TiO2 nanotubes: An efficient photocatalyst for water splitting,
L.K. Preethi, Tom Mathews, Mangla Nand, S.N. Jha, Chinnakonda S. Gopinath, S. Dash,
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 218 (2017) 9–19.
3. Effect of dry air on interface smoothening in reactive sputter deposited Co/Ti multilayer,
A. Biswas, A. Porwal, Debarati Bhattacharya, C. L. Prajapat, Arnab Ghosh, Mangla Nand, C. Nayak, S. Raif, S. N. Jha, M. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharyya, S. Basu, N. K. Sahoo,
Applied Surface Science 416 (2017) 168–177.
4. Highly Acidic, Thermal Stable NbPO4@Fullerene Catalyst for Dehydration of Cyclohexanol,
Sneha Shah,Nidhi Tiwari, Yogesh Kumar, S. N. Jha, Aline Auroux, Jai K. Pandey, and Biswajit Chowdhury,
Chemistry Select, 2 (2017) 5640-5645.

1. Structural, electronic structure, and band alignment properties at epitaxial NiO/Al2O3 heterojunction evaluated from synchrotron-based X-ray techniques,
S. D. Singh, Mangla Nand, Arijeet Das, R. S. Ajimsha, Anuj Upadhyay, Rajiv Kamparath, D. K. Shukla, C. Mukherjee, P. Misra, S. K. Rai, A. K. Sinha, S. N. Jha, D. M. Phase, and Tapas Ganguli,
Journal of Applied Physics 119 (2016) 165302.
2. Determination of band offsets at strained NiO and MgO heterojunction for MgO as an interlayer in heterojunction light emitting diode applications,
S. D. Singh, Mangla Nand, R. S. Ajimsha, Anuj Upadhyay, Rajiv Kamparath, C. Mukherjee, P. Misra, A. K. Sinha, S. N. Jha, and Tapas Ganguli,
Applied Surface Science 389 (2016) 835.
3. Raman and photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of high-purity niobium materials: Oxides, hydrides, and hydrocarbons,
Nageshwar Singh, M.N. Deo, Mangla Nand, S.N. Jha, and S.B. Roy,
Journal of Applied Physics 120 (2016) 114902.
4. Interface structure in nanoscale multilayers near continuous-to-discontinuous regime,
P. C. Pradhan, A. Majhi, M. Nayak, Mangla Nand, P. Rajput, D. K. Shukla, A. Biswas, S. K. Rai, S. N. Jha, D. Bhattacharyya, D. M. Phase, and N. K. Sahoo,
Journal of Applied Physics 120 (2016) 045308.
5. Electronic Structure of FeAl Alloy Studied by Resonant Photoemission Spectroscopy and Ab Initio Calculations,
Debashis Mondal, Soma Banik, C. Kamal, Mangla Nand, S. N. Jha, D. M. Phase, A. K. Sinha, Aparna Chakrabarti, A. Banerjee, Tapas Ganguli,
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 688 (2016) 187.

Science Highlights

Science Highlights

Science Highlights

Science Highlights

Team members

  1. Dr. Shilpa Tripathi
  2. Shri Mangla Nand
  3. Shri Yogesh Kumar
  4. Smt. Babita Vinayak Salaskar

Best viewed in 1024x768 resolution