Indus Synchrotron Radiation Facility

Fig. 1 shows a schematic of the Indus Accelerator Complex. The two sources, Indus-1 and Indus-2, share a common injector system consisting of a microtron and a booster synchrotron. The electrons are generated and accelerated to 20 MeV in the microtron and injected through a transfer line TL-1 into the booster synchrotron where its energy is increased to 450 MeV / 550 MeV. For injection into Indus-1, the 450 MeV electron beam is extracted from the synchrotron and then transported to the storage ring Indus-1 through the transfer line TL-2. This process of production, acceleration and injection is carried out every second till the current is accumulated to 100 mA in the Indus-1 storage ring. For the injection into Indus-2, a 550 MeV beam is extracted from the booster synchrotron and transported to Indus-2 through transfer lines, TL-2 and TL-3. Injection process continues till the beam current reaches a desired level. Subsequently beam energy is ramped to 2.5 GeV. Table.1 lists the main parameters of two synchrotron radiation sources: Indus-1 and Indus-2. Fig.2 depicts the Indus control room from where all the Indus accelerators are remotely operated.

A schematic of the Indus Accelerator Complex

Fig.1: A schematic of the Indus Accelerator Complex

Table 1: Parameters of Indus-1 electron storage ring




Stored beam energy

450 MeV

2.5 GeV

Beam current

100 mA

200 mA


18.97 m

172.47 m

Beam energy (Injection)

450 MeV

550 MeV

Critical wavelength

61 Å

1.98 Å

Beam emittance( ξx, ξ y)

7.0*10-8 m-rad
7.0*10-9 m-rad

5.8*10-8 m-rad
5.8*10-10 m-rad




Dipole magnets



Quadrupole magnets



Sextupole magnets



Harmonic number



RF system frequency

31.613 MHz

505.812 MHz

Energy loss per turn

3.6 keV

627 keV

RF voltage

22 kV

1.27 MV

A photograph of the Indus control room
Fig.2: A photograph of the Indus control room
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